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Complementarity Determining Regions
 
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Hope this helps your understanding of CDRs as it did for me
Views: 1052 tenochtitilian
Medical vocabulary: What does Complementarity Determining Regions mean
 
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What does Complementarity Determining Regions mean in English?
Views: 264 botcaster inc. bot
What is SUPPLEMENTARITY? What does SUPPLEMENTARITY mean? SUPPLEMENTARITY meaning & explanation
 
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What is SUPPLEMENTARITY? What does SUPPLEMENTARITY mean? SUPPLEMENTARITY meaning - SUPPLEMENTARITY pronunciation - SUPPLEMENTARITY definition - SUPPLEMENTARITY explanation - how to pronounce SUPPLEMENTARITY? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ "Supplementarity", also referred to as "the supplementary principle", is one of the main principles of the Kyoto Protocol. The concept is that internal abatement of emissions should take precedence before external participation in flexible mechanisms. These mechanisms include emissions trading, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and Joint Implementation (JI). Emissions trading basically refers to the trading of emissions allowances (carbon credits) between one regulated entity and a less pollutive entity. This trading of permits results in a marginal economic disincentive to the buyer and a marginal economic incentive the abater. CDM and JI are flexible mechanisms based on the concept of a carbon project. These projects reduce GHG voluntarily (outside the capped sectors) and therefore can be imported into the capped sector to aid in compliance. The supplementarity principle is found in three articles of the Kyoto Protocol: article 6 and 17 with regards to trading, and article 12 with regards to the clean development mechanism. Article 6.1 states that "The acquisition of emission reduction units shall be supplemental to domestic actions for the purposes of meeting commitments under Article 3". Article 17 states that "Any such trading shall be supplemental to domestic actions for the purpose of meeting quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under that article". Article 12.3.b states that "Parties included in Annex I may use the certified emission reductions accruing from such project activities to contribute to compliance with part of their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3". The actual meaning of the principle has been heavily argued since the signing of Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The COP/MOP is the body that represents the signers/ratifiers of the protocol and they have not been able to agree on a specific definition of the limit on use of flexible mechanisms. The original text has been interpreted to mean that anywhere from 3-50% of emissions could be offset by trading mechanisms. However, the only determination that has been thustly made is that the actual value of supplementarity should be decided at the country level. In the United States RGGI (Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative) has set a precedent in that it will initially allow only up to 3.3% compliance occur by means of offset projects (carbon projects). This value can increase to 5% and ultimately 10% if certain price thresholds are exceeded in the region.
Views: 68 The Audiopedia
Antigen
 
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In immunology, an antigen (Ag), or antibody generator, is any substance which provokes an adaptive immune response. An antigen is often foreign or toxic to the body (for example, a bacterium) which, once in the body, attracts and is bound to a respective and specific antibody. That is to say, an antigen is a molecule that also induces an immune response in the body. Each antibody is specifically designed to deal with certain antigens because of variation in the antibody's complementarity determining regions (a common analogy used to describe this is the fit between a lock and a key). Paul Ehrlich coined the term antibody (in German Antikörper) in his side-chain theory at the end of 19th century. The term antigen originally came from ANTIbody GENerator (see section History). The antigen may originate from within the body ("self") or from the external environment ("non-self"). The immune system is usually non-reactive against "self" antigens under normal conditions and is supposed to identify and attack only "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2316 Audiopedia
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1
 
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You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. *** In this episode of Crash Course, Hank introduces you to the complex history and terminology of Anatomy & Physiology. -- Table of Contents: Anatomy: The Structure of Parts 2:34 Physiology: How Parts Function 3:50 Complementarity of Structure & Function 4:09 Hierarchy of Organization 4:20 Directional Terms 7:27 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 4650532 CrashCourse
What is SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION? What does SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION mean?
 
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What is SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION? What does SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION mean? SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION meaning - SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION definition - SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Somatic hypermutation (or SHM) is a cellular mechanism by which the immune system adapts to the new foreign elements that confront it (e.g. microbes), as seen during class switching. A major component of the process of affinity maturation, SHM diversifies B cell receptors used to recognize foreign elements (antigens) and allows the immune system to adapt its response to new threats during the lifetime of an organism. Somatic hypermutation involves a programmed process of mutation affecting the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Unlike germline mutation, SHM affects only an organism's individual immune cells, and the mutations are not transmitted to the organism's offspring. Mistargeted somatic hypermutation is a likely mechanism in the development of B-cell lymphomas. When a B cell recognizes an antigen, it is stimulated to divide (or proliferate). During proliferation, the B cell receptor locus undergoes an extremely high rate of somatic mutation that is at least 105-106 fold greater than the normal rate of mutation across the genome. Variation is mainly in the form of single base substitutions, with insertions and deletions being less common. These mutations occur mostly at “hotspots” in the DNA, which are concentrated in hypervariable regions. These regions correspond to the complementarity determining regions; the sites involved in antigen recognition on the immunoglobulin. The "hotspots" of somatic hypermutation vary depending on the base that is being mutated. RGYW for a G, WRCY for a C, WA for an A and TW for a T. The overall result of the hypermutation process is achieved by a balance between error-prone and high fidelity repair. This directed hypermutation allows for the selection of B cells that express immunoglobulin receptors possessing an enhanced ability to recognize and bind a specific foreign antigen. Experimental evidence supports the view that the mechanism of SHM involves deamination of cytosine to uracil in DNA by an enzyme called Activation-Induced (Cytidine) Deaminase, or AID. A cytosine:guanine pair is thus directly mutated to a uracil:guanine mismatch. Uracil residues are not normally found in DNA, therefore, to maintain the integrity of the genome, most of these mutations must be repaired by high-fidelity Base Excision Repair enzymes. The uracil bases are removed by the repair enzyme, uracil-DNA glycosylase. Error-prone DNA polymerases are then recruited to fill in the gap and create mutations. The synthesis of this new DNA involves error-prone DNA polymerases, which often introduce mutations either at the position of the deaminated cytosine itself or neighboring base pairs. During B cell division the immunoglobulin variable region DNA is transcribed and translated. The introduction of mutations in the rapidly proliferating population of B cells ultimately culminates in the production of thousands of B cells, possessing slightly different receptors and varying specificity for the antigen, from which the B cell with highest affinities for the antigen can be selected. The B cells with the greatest affinity will then be selected to differentiate into plasma cells producing antibody and long-lived memory B cells contributing to enhanced immune responses upon reinfection. The hypermutation process also utilizes cells that auto-select against the 'signature' of an organism's own cells. It is hypothesized that failures of this auto-selection process may also lead to the development of an auto-immune response.
Views: 4869 The Audiopedia
Transcription Adaptation during In Vitro Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis of Porcine Mesenchymal...
 
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Transcription Adaptation during In Vitro Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis of Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Dynamics of Pathways, Biological Processes, Up-Stream Regulators, and Gene Networks. Massimo Bionaz et al (2015), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137644 The importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for bone regeneration is growing. Among MSC the bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) are considered the gold standard in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; however, the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have very similar properties and some advantages to be considered a good alternative to BMSC. The molecular mechanisms driving adipogenesis are relatively well-known but mechanisms driving osteogenesis are poorly known, particularly in pig. In the present study we have used transcriptome analysis to unravel pathways and biological functions driving in vitro adipogenesis and osteogenesis in BMSC and ASC. The analysis was performed using the novel Dynamic Impact Approach and functional enrichment analysis. In addition, a k-mean cluster analysis in association with enrichment analysis, networks reconstruction, and transcription factors overlapping analysis were performed in order to uncover the coordination of biological functions underlining differentiations. Analysis indicated a larger and more coordinated transcriptomic adaptation during adipogenesis compared to osteogenesis, with a larger induction of metabolism, particularly lipid synthesis (mostly triglycerides), and a larger use of amino acids for synthesis of feed-forward adipogenic compounds, larger cell signaling, lower cell-to-cell interactions, particularly for the cytoskeleton organization and cell junctions, and lower cell proliferation. The coordination of adipogenesis was mostly driven by Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors together with other known adipogenic transcription factors. Only a few pathways and functions were more induced during osteogenesis compared to adipogenesis and some were more inhibited during osteogenesis, such as cholesterol and protein synthesis. Up-stream transcription factor analysis indicated activation of several lipid-related transcription regulators (e.g., PPARs and CEBPα) during adipogenesis but osteogenesis was driven by inhibition of several up-stream regulators, such as MYC. Between MSCs the data indicated an ‘adipocyte memory’ in ASC with also an apparent lower immunogenicity compared to BMSC during differentiations. Overall the analysis allowed proposing a dynamic model for the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in porcine ASC and BMSC.
Views: 312 ScienceVio
Emi Station -  Paratope M1 (Original Mix)
 
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Original Deep House from South Philly.
Views: 152 SeanBarrett666
How Do We Love? A Thoughtful Dialogue on Sexual Differences
 
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Biola University is committed to encouraging healthy dialogue within our community on the sensitive topic of sexual identity — a topic of increasing importance in our culture. As a biblically centered institution, we believe it is essential for our thinking on this issue to be guided first and foremost by the teachings of Scripture. To that end, the university recently published a faculty-authored position paper that articulates Biola’s understanding of the biblical teaching on same-sex behavior. In connection with the release of this paper, Biola hosted a public conversation on Oct. 7 with noted authors Wesley Hill and Justin Lee, who offered varying perspectives on what it means to live as a biblically faithful Christian who experiences same-sex attraction. We began the evening by restating Biola's Scriptural perspective on human sexuality, and the event was moderated by our Provost and Senior Vice President, David Nystrom (himself a New Testament scholar). By engaging different viewpoints, the “How Do We Love?” event helped to model for our students how to have an intelligent, respectful conversation with those who believe differently, even as we remain firmly committed to our own biblical convictions. Biola’s “Position Paper on Same-Sex Behavior” can be found online at http://static.biola.edu/studentlife/media/downloads/BiolaDocs/same-sex-behavior-biola-position-paper.pdf.
Views: 20438 BiolaUniversity
11. RNA Secondary Structure; Biological Functions and Predictions
 
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MIT 7.91J Foundations of Computational and Systems Biology, Spring 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/7-91JS14 Instructor: Christopher Burge Lecture 11 is about RNA secondary structure.  Prof. Christopher Burge begins with an introduction and biological examples of RNA structure. He then talks about two approaches for predicting structure: covariation and energy minimization. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 6966 MIT OpenCourseWare
9. Modeling and Discovery of Sequence Motifs
 
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MIT 7.91J Foundations of Computational and Systems Biology, Spring 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/7-91JS14 Instructor: Christopher Burge This lecture by Prof. Christopher Burge covers modeling and discovery of sequence motifs. He gives the example of the Gibbs sampling algorithm. He covers information content of a motif, and he ends with parameter estimation for motif models. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 10904 MIT OpenCourseWare
Mestizaje, Hybridity and Cultural Entanglements in Colonial Latin America: Mesoamerica
 
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A panel discussion on Mesoamerica as part of the symposium "Mestizaje, Hybridity and Cultural Entanglements in Colonial Latin America," cosponsored by the University of Maryland and with the generous support of the Kislak Family Foundation. For transcript and more information, visit https://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=8213
Views: 790 LibraryOfCongress
how micro RNA works?
 
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how micro RNA works? Short description: In this video I have explained how a micro RNA (miRNA) works. miRNA binds to it target messenger RNA at 3' UTR end and block the translation. Long Description: how micro RNA works???
Views: 1133 rama moorthy
Stig L. Andersson, “After Nature”
 
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We live in the Anthropocene Era where the world’s ecosystems and geological processes have been profoundly altered by human activities. It is a state where the nature that was here before us, has irreversibly changed into a nature that has its form and expression, as a result of our way of consuming natural resources. We have interfered in nature’s processes so that they are no longer the nature we once knew. Our nature is a new nature; a nature that we are the co-creators of. In this condition, what is the role and the meaning of landscape architecture? For one, the traditional distinction between nature and culture can no longer be preserved. What is needed is a new approach to landscape architecture, where landscape architecture is that which can bring a new order into our built environment; which can establish the grown environment as equal and complementary to the built environment; and which can reestablish our aesthetic sense of nature and make us aware that nature is not a threat we must fight against, but the central aspect of what creates a fully livable community. That we have to model our new world After Nature. Stig L. Andersson founded SLA Architects in 1994. Having studied nuclear physics, Japanese culture and chemistry before becoming an architect, Andersson graduated from The Royal Danish School of Architecture in 1986. From 1986-1989 Andersson moved to Japan with Japanese ministerial research funds. Andersson was particularly interested in Japanese culture’s relationship with substance, space and changeability – fields he has integrated and developed in his own practice since 1994. Stig L. Andersson is SLA’s founding partner. Beginning as a (purely) landscape architectural practice, SLA has developed into an international interdisciplinary organization working with city nature, urban design and nature-based solutions. Renowned for his sensuous and poetic work, Andersson combines unique amenity values based on the aesthetics of nature with cutting-edge sustainable city solutions and ecosystem services. Stig L. Andersson is a professor in aesthetic design at the University of Copenhagen and is a much sought-after lecturer and teacher at universities and architecture schools in Europe, Asia and the United States. Stig L. Andersson has received numerous national and international awards for his work, including The European Landscape Award, The RIBA Award, The World Landscape Architecture Award, and in 2014 the C.F. Hansen Medal – the highest national honour given to a Danish architect awarded by Queen Margrethe II of Denmark.
Views: 1668 Harvard GSD
Anna Marie Pyle (Yale U./HHMI) Part 1: RNA Structure
 
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http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/anna-marie-pyle-part-1.html Lecture Overview: In Part 1, Dr. Pyle explains that many RNA molecules have elaborate structures that are essential for their functions. Even mRNA, a relatively linear molecule, can contain distinctive three- dimensional structures. RNA duplexes are the units of secondary structure, and these form in regions where base-pairing occurs. Duplex regions often include internal or terminal loops, and they can contain unusual types of base-pairing. These secondary structural elements can arrange themselves to form highly complex tertiary structures. It is the variety of these tertiary structures that allows for the great functional diversity of RNA. In her second talk, Pyle focuses on the self-splicing Group II introns. These molecules are very large ribozymes that catalyze their own splicing and transposition, employing a reaction and an active-site similar to that of the eukaryotic spliceosome. To better understand the chemistry of pre-mRNA splicincg, Pyle and her group obtained a high-resolution crystal structure of the Oceanobacillus iheyensis Group IIC intron. The crystal structure provided insights into the key roles that divalent and monovalent ions play in RNA chemistry and tertiary architecture. During the final talk in this series, Pyle switches her focus to a specialized class of mechanical proteins that bind and manipulate RNA molecules. This protein family includes RNA helicases, which translocate along RNA strands and strip away associated macromolecules. However, a related set of proteins display functions different from helicase activity, including a role as RNA-activated biosensors. Through crystallographic, biochemical and cell-based studies of innate immune receptor RIG-I, Pyle has shown that this human surveillance protein recognizes and binds to small viral double stranded RNAs. The subsequent binding of ATP induces protein conformational changes that contribute to signal transduction and activation of the interferon response in vivo. Speaker Bio: Anna Marie Pyle is the William Edward Gilbert Professor of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Professor of Chemistry at Yale University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Pyle received her BA from Princeton University and her PhD in Chemistry from Columbia University. She was a post-doctoral fellow with Tom Cech at the University of Colorado. Before joining Yale, Pyle was a faculty member at Columbia from 1992-2002. Pyle’s lab uses enzymatic and biophysical methods to explore the complex structures of large RNA molecules, such as self-splicing introns. Her lab also studies the molecular motor proteins that operate on RNA, such as RNA helicases and RNA-activated biosensors that contribute to the vertebrate antiviral response. More information is available on Dr. Pyle’s lab page at http://pylelab.org/
Views: 25162 iBiology
The Trinity and Gender: The Recent Debate Among Evangelicals
 
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A Dialogue between Dr. Kevin Giles (egalitarian) & Dr. Fred Sanders (complementarian). These two Trinity scholars -- with different perspectives on the evangelical gender debate -- discuss recent arguments that an eternal "authority/subordination" relationship exists between the Father and Son, and that it is intended as a model for male-female relations. For the most recent example of this argument, see the chapters by Drs. Wayne Grudem and Bruce Ware in "The New Evangelical Subordinationism?: Perspectives on the Equality of God the Father and God the Son" Kevin Giles (Th.D. Australian College of Theology) served as Anglican rector/pastor for forty years, and now writes, lectures, and is an associate in his present parish in Australia. He has been a member of Christians for Biblical Equality since its inception. His publications include "The Trinity and Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God and the Contemporary Gender Debate" (IVP Academic, 2002); "Jesus and the Father: Modern Evangelicals Reinvent the Doctrine of the Trinity" (Zondervan, 2006); and "The Eternal Generation of the Son: Maintaining Orthodoxy in Trinitarian Theology" (IVP Academic, 2012). Kevin's views on the Trinity and Gender are summarized in CBE's "Priscilla Papers" 26.3, Summer 2012. Fred Sanders (Ph.D. Graduate Theological Union) has served as Professor of Theology in Biola University's Torrey Honors Institute since 1999, is a popular speaker and blogger (www.patheos.com/blogs/scriptorium/author/fredsanders), and an active member of the Grace Evangeiical Free Church. His publications include "The Image of the Immanent Trinity" (Peter Lang, 2005); "Jesus in Trinitarian Perspective: An Introductory Christology", F. Sanders and K. Issler, eds. (B&H, 2007); and "The Deep Things of God: How the Trinity Changes Everything" (Crossway, 2010). Fred has produced many scholarly articles, book chapters. and academic presentations on the Trinity, in which he argues for both "order and equality" in the Godhead.
Views: 8788 BiolaUniversity
Dipesh Chakrabarty’s The Calling of History: Book Launch & Panel Discussion
 
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At the UChicago Center in Delhi, historian Dipesh Chakrabarty was joined by a distinguished panel at the launch of his book The Calling of History: Sir Jadunath Sarkar and his Empire of Truth. The Panel featured eminent historians Nayanjot Lahiri and Neeladri Bhattacharya and journalist Swapan Dasgupta and addressed broader questions about the discipline of history and public life drawing on contemporary debates and examples from the life and work of Sir Jadunath Sarkar, a leading historian of the Mughal period in India. The panel was moderated by renowned scholar Rudrangshu Mukherjee. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGOytSubscribe About #UChicago: A destination for inquiry, research, and education, the University of Chicago empowers scholars to challenge conventional thinking. Our diverse community of creative thinkers celebrates ideas, and is celebrated for them. #UChicago on the Web: Home: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGO-home News: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGO-news Facebook: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGO-FB Twitter: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGO-TW Instagram: http://bit.ly/UCHICAGO-IG University of Chicago on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/uchicago *** ACCESSIBILITY: If you experience any technical difficulties with this video or would like to make an accessibility-related request, please email [email protected]
The Countryside I: Ruralism
 
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09/21/2015 The countryside is often presented as bucolic, close to nature; the city, by contrast, as artifice shaped by capital. Raymond Williams addressed many of the fallacies of this disjuncture in his classic study The Country and the City (1973). What has happened to the countryside since then, and what is the relationship between the urban and the rural today? While a great deal of scholarly attention has been dedicated to urban development and urbanization, the study of the rural has lacked a comparable systematic analysis. This event is the first in a series devoted to the countryside, intending to address that imbalance. The school also plans to offer a Rotterdam-based option studio devoted to the topic in the spring of 2016. Introduction by Mohsen Mostafavi, Dean and Alexander Wiley Professor of Design Main presenter: Frédéric Bonnet, codirector, Équipe Obras; Lecturer at the Accademia dell'architettura, Mendrisio, Switzerland; winner of the 2014 Grand Prix de l'Urbanisme With short statements by: Anita Berrizbeitia, professor of landscape architecture and chair of the Landscape Architecture Department at Harvard GSD Neil Brenner, professor of urban theory; director of the Urban Theory Lab at Harvard GSD John Dixon Hunt, visiting professor of landscape architecture at Harvard GSD; emeritus professor of the history and theory of landscape, University of Pennsylvania Christopher Lee, associate professor in practice of urban design at Harvard GSD
Views: 4417 Harvard GSD
History of economic thought | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of economic thought Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century. This field encompasses many disparate schools of economic thought. Ancient Greek writers such as the philosopher Aristotle examined ideas about the art of wealth acquisition, and questioned whether property is best left in private or public hands. In the Middle Ages, scholasticists such as Thomas Aquinas argued that it was a moral obligation of businesses to sell goods at a just priceIn the Western world, economics was not a separate discipline, but part of philosophy until the 18th–19th century Industrial Revolution and the 19th century Great Divergence, which accelerated economic growth.
Views: 145 wikipedia tts
Jennifer Listgarten: CRISPR Bioinformatics - Machine learning predictive models for guide design
 
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Jennifer Listgarten (Microsoft) explains how machine learning can be utilized for guide RNA design. [2017 CRISPR Workshop]
Glossary of genetics | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_genetics 00:00:20 0–9 00:02:17 A 00:05:54 B 00:06:42 C 00:13:25 D 00:16:48 E 00:19:18 F 00:20:29 G 00:29:57 H 00:33:47 I 00:35:48 J 00:35:59 K 00:36:49 L 00:38:12 M 00:42:19 N 00:46:49 O 00:48:16 P 00:53:31 Q 00:54:15 R 00:57:42 S 01:02:01 T 01:05:01 U 01:05:52 W 01:06:22 X 01:06:35 Y 01:06:48 Z 01:07:02 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9448468014665127 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This glossary of genetics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of genetics and related disciplines in biology, including molecular biology and evolutionary biology. It is intended as introductory material for novices; for more specific and technical detail, see the article corresponding to each term.
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
2016 Fall Seminar #8: Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC): What, Why, and How?
 
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Presented by Imran Hayee, Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota Duluth Please type how many people are watching at your location into the chatbox. We’re required to report our viewership rates to the US DOT and would appreciate having the most accurate count possible. Please enter questions for the speaker into the chatbox. If you cannot access the chatbox and would like to submit a question and report the number of viewers watching, please email [email protected]
Aurobindo Ghosh : Self
 
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Views: 915 IIT Guwahati
2015 AAA Invited Session: IN SEARCH OF WOMEN IN THE PALEOLITHIC
 
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The story is familiar: Man uses his large, complex brain to invent stone tools. Man uses stone tools to aggressively hunt large wild animals. Man, being an exemplary mate, brings meat to his mate and their offspring. Man's mate is passive: she remains at a home base, watching the offspring, while Man directs humanity's evolution. The collective consciousness surrounding paleoanthropology is rife with Stone Age reconstructivist fantasies like this one, that reify modern Western interpretations of familiar heteronormative gender roles. The Paleolithic, a nebulous period stretching from the first stone tools until the development of agriculture, is so susceptible to such fantasies, that the typical narrative describing it seems ordinary in its familiarity. Yet, this narrative is a strange palimpsest of paleoanthropologists' personal experiences of perceived gender roles superimposed on great ape and historically contingent hunter-gatherer evidence used to model the evolution of human gendered behavior. Can we improve our interpretations by bringing in careful and thoughtful analyses of archaeological and biological evidence? We have a half century's refinement in concepts of gender, labor divisions, and standpoint theory with which to address this issue. In this panel, we will advance beyond the “add women and stir approach” to thinking about gender during deep prehistory in a way that highlights its possible strangeness from modern experiences. The authors will explore how gender and sex are identified in the fossil and archaeological records, how gender roles are interpreted from this evidence, and what this means for the representation of men and women in the Paleolithic. By emphasizing our relative unfamiliarity with the gender roles of the past, we will reveal the strangeness of the familiar, male-centric Paleolithic narrative and seek a more holistic vision of gender in the past.
"A Psychology that Responds to Our Times" | Elena Mustakova Possardt
 
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Web Talk #36 A Psychology That Responds to Our Times: Transforming Inner Oppression into Awakened, Aligned, and Liberated Spirit We are experiencing a rapidly deepening and pervasive world-wide disintegration of the socio-moral fabric of life, expressed in a global crisis of mental health. In 2000, the World Health Organization recognized a Social Breakdown Syndrome, and since then, it has been struggling to develop new and more effective systemic ways to address the global crisis in mental health. Despite these efforts, and despite the massive global push toward more democratic and transparent governance, even reasonably functioning people struggle with a deeply hidden sense of inner oppression. We are gradually realizing that psychological suffering in a turbulent and globalizing era can no longer be understood solely in traditional psychiatric terms, as failures of psycho-social adjustment. This talk brings a Baha’i perspective to examining the inner dynamic of oppression and the root socio-historical characteristics of a wide range of psychological conditions in the age of anxiety. It will explore the challenge to develop psychological education and clinical training that address proactively the complex needs of a highly diverse and conflict-ridden global society. It will offer an emergent vision of global community psychology in an explicit normative context. We will discuss processes of the systemic cultivation of cultures of social health, which foster in people spiritual awakening and progressively more empowered alignment with planetary transformation. We will draw from a synthesis of these issues, developed in a recent Baha’i-inspired volume, Toward a Socially Responsible Psychology for a Global Era. Dr. Elena Mustakova is an educator, social scientist, and former professor in adult developmental psychology, as well as a counselor and psychotherapist in private practice in the metro DC area. Her work for the past 30 years, on the lifespan development of critical moral consciousness, and the role of cultural contexts in shaping human consciousness, received the 1998 Outstanding Dissertation Award of the Association for Moral Education. Her book on the topic was published in the U.S. in 2003, and in Bulgaria in 2004, where Elena has been serving the Bulgarian Baha’i community since 1995. In 2003, she received the Carter Campus Community Partnership Award for founding the Latino Initiative of University of West Georgia, aimed at applying the insights of critical and community psychology to assist the new Latino immigrant population in a rural county in its empowerment and integration into the larger community. In recent years, her focus has shifted to the need for a new discourse on social health, one that articulates the nature and dynamics of creating cultures of social health, and draws both on knowledge in the social sciences, and on the practical experience of spiritual and social justice communities around the world (See http://bahaiteachings.org/creating-a-culture-of-social-health ) Her second comprehensive volume, Springer International Psychology series 2014 volume, of which she was senior editor and chief contributor, Toward a Socially Responsible Psychology for a Global Era (http://www.globalsocialhealth.org/systemic-analysis/publications/), has been called by PsycCritiques “an important book with a crucial message”, because it sets out to achieve an “extraordinarily important mission: using Western psychology to create a more sustainable future.” She has lectured extensively, both in the U.S. and internationally, has served on a range of panels and international forums, and her work has received high academic awards.
Views: 1900 Wilmette Institute
Implementation of Signal Detection Capabilities in the Sentinel System
 
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On December 3, 2018, in cooperative agreement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Robert J. Margolis, MD, Center for Health Policy at Duke University will convene a public workshop to explore opportunities to implement signal detection capabilities in the Sentinel System. Authorized in 2007 by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA), the Sentinel System is an active and fully functioning postmarket safety surveillance system that can rapidly scale distributed analyses on data collected by a diverse range of Sentinel Data Partners to identify potential safety risks related to the use of prescription drugs. To continue advancing and modernizing this data infrastructure, the Agency is seeking broad stakeholder input on the landscape of methodological approaches for signal detection, as well as the opportunities and challenges to implement these approaches in Sentinel’s distributed data network. Discussion will also consider key governance and operational needs for implementing signal detection tools in a hypothesis free environment. Stakeholder input received at this workshop will further inform the Agency’s thinking around these priority issues and support strategic planning in the Sentinel System.
Views: 949 Duke Margolis
Jupiter (mythology) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Jupiter (mythology) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Jupiter (from Latin: Iūpiter [ˈjuːpɪtɛr] or Iuppiter [ˈjʊppɪtɛr], from Proto-Italic *djous "day, sky" + *patēr "father", thus "sky father"), also known as Jove gen. Iovis [ˈjɔwɪs]), is the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice. Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as an aerial god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (see Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill, where the citadel was located. In the Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak. The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto, the Roman equivalents of Poseidon and Hades respectively. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually identified with Jupiter. Tinia is usually regarded as his Etruscan counterpart.
Views: 93 wikipedia tts
What is INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION? What does INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION mean?
 
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What is INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION? What does INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION mean? INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION meaning - INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION definition - INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and to platonic or romantic relationships. Interpersonal attraction, the process, is distinct from perceptions of physical attractiveness, which involves views of what is and is not considered beautiful or attractive. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction is related to how much one likes, dislikes or hates someone. It can be viewed as a force acting between two people that tends to draw them together and resist their separation. When measuring interpersonal attraction, one must refer to the qualities of the attracted as well as the qualities of the attractor to achieve predictive accuracy. It is suggested that to determine attraction, both the personalities and the situation must be taken into account. Repulsion is also a factor in the process of interpersonal attraction; one's conception of "attraction" to another can vary from extreme attraction to extreme repulsion. Interpersonal attraction is most frequently measured using the 'Interpersonal Attraction Judgment Scale' developed by Donn Byrne. It is a scale in which a subject "rates" another person on dimensions such as intelligence, knowledge of current events, morality, adjustment, likability and desirability as a work partner. This scale seems to be directly related with other measures of social attraction such as social choice, feelings of desire for a date, sexual partner or spouse, voluntary physical proximity, frequency of eye contact, etc. Kiesler and Goldberg analyzed a variety of response measures that were typically utilized as measures of attraction and extracted two factors: The first, characterized as primarily socioemotional, included variables such as liking, desirability of the person's inclusion in social clubs and parties, seating choices, and lunching together. The second factor included variables such as voting for, admiration and respect for, and also seeking the opinion of the target. Another widely used measurement technique scales verbal responses expressed as subjective ratings or judgments of the person of interest. Many factors leading to interpersonal attraction have been studied, all of which involve social reinforcement. The most frequently studied are physical attractiveness, propinquity, familiarity, similarity, complementarity, reciprocal liking, and reinforcement.
Views: 4143 The Audiopedia
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
 
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FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) is a cytogenetic technique developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s that is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. FISH uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with which they show a high degree of sequence complementarity. Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA for use in genetic counseling, medicine, and species identification. FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA) in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples. In this context, it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4256 Audiopedia
What is BINARY OPPOSITION? What does BINARY OPPOSITION mean? BINARY OPPOSITION meaning
 
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What is BINARY OPPOSITION? What does BINARY OPPOSITION mean? BINARY OPPOSITION meaning - BINARY OPPOSITION definition - BINARY OPPOSITION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A binary opposition (also binary system) is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning. Binary opposition is the system by which, in language and thought, two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one another. It is the contrast between two mutually exclusive terms, such as on and off, up and down, left and right. Binary opposition is an important concept of structuralism, which sees such distinctions as fundamental to all language and thought. In structuralism, a binary opposition is seen as a fundamental organizer of human philosophy, culture, and language. Binary opposition originated in Saussurean structuralist theory. According to Ferdinand de Saussure, the binary opposition is the means by which the units of language have value or meaning; each unit is defined in reciprocal determination with another term, as in binary code. It is not a contradictory relation but a structural, complementary one. Saussure demonstrated that a sign's meaning is derived from its context (syntagmatic dimension) and the group (paradigm) to which it belongs. An example of this is that one cannot conceive of 'good' if we do not understand 'evil'. Typically, one of the two opposites assumes a role of dominance over the other. The categorization of binary oppositions is "often value-laden and ethnocentric", with an illusory order and superficial meaning. Furthermore, Pieter Fourie discovers that binary oppositions have a deeper or second level of binaries that help to reinforce meaning. As an example, the concepts hero and villain involve secondary binaries: good/bad, handsome/ugly, liked/disliked, and so on.
Views: 7451 The Audiopedia
2016 Aims of Public Policy Address: Keynote Address
 
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University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Professor James A. Robinson gives the 2016 Aims of Public Policy Address on September 19, 2016 on "Policy for Development." Robinson is University Professor at Harris Public Policy; the Reverend Dr. Richard L. Pearson Professor of Global Conflict; and Faculty Director of The Pearson Institute for the Study and Resolution of Global Conflict.
Gregory Bateson
 
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Gregory Bateson was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. In the 1940s he helped extend systems theory and cybernetics to the social and behavioral sciences. He spent the last decade of his life developing a "meta-science" of epistemology to bring together the various early forms of systems theory developing in different fields of science. His writings include Steps to an Ecology of Mind and Mind and Nature. Angels Fear was co-authored by his daughter Mary Catherine Bateson. Bateson was born in Grantchester in Cambridgeshire, England on 9 May 1904. He was the third and youngest son of [Caroline] Beatrice Durham and the distinguished geneticist William Bateson. He was named Gregory after Gregor Mendel, the Austrian monk who founded the modern science of genetics. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 9344 Audiopedia
Confucianism | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Confucianism 00:05:00 1 Terminology 00:07:30 1.1 Five Classics (五经, iWǔjīng/i) and the Confucian vision 00:10:14 2 Doctrines 00:10:22 2.1 Theory and theology 00:12:53 2.1.1 iTiān/i and the gods 00:16:37 2.2 Social morality and ethics 00:18:27 2.2.1 Humaneness 00:19:38 2.2.2 Rite and centring 00:21:56 2.2.3 Loyalty 00:24:23 2.2.4 Filial piety 00:26:19 2.3 Relationships 00:28:15 2.4 iJunzi/i 00:30:26 2.5 Rectification of names 00:32:50 3 History 00:38:23 4 Organisation and liturgy 00:42:48 5 Governance 00:44:05 6 Meritocracy 00:45:49 7 Influence 00:45:58 7.1 In 17th-century Europe 00:47:26 7.2 On Islamic thought 00:48:00 7.3 In modern times 00:49:37 7.4 On Chinese martial arts 00:50:37 8 Criticism 00:52:11 8.1 Women in Confucian thought 00:55:40 9 Catholic controversy over Chinese rites 00:58:04 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600 BCE–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1046 BCE–256 BCE). In the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty (618–907). In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960–1297). The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The intellectuals of the New Culture Movement of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy.With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values, the core of Confucianism is humanistic. According to Herbert Fingarette's conceptualisation of Confucianism as a religion which regards "the secular as sacred", Confucianism transcends the dichotomy between religion and humanism, considering the ordinary activities of human life—and especially human relationships—as a manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of humanity's moral nature (xìng 性), which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven (Tiān 天) and unfolds through an appropriate respect for the spirits or gods (shén) of the world. While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of godhead, it is primarily an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào (道) or the Brahman. Confucianism focuses on the practical order that is given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān. Confucian liturgy (called 儒 rú, or sometimes 正統/正统 zhèngtǒng, meaning "orthoprax") led by Confucian priests or "sages of rites" (禮生/礼生 lǐshēng) to worship the gods in public and ancestral Chinese temples is preferred on certain occasions, by Confucian religious groups and for civil religious rites, over Taoist or popular ritual.The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Comparative Medicine Team Approach Viral Infections
 
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On April 7–8, 2015, the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) in the Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, sponsored a workshop on the NIH campus entitled, One Health: Integrating the Veterinarian Scientist into the Biomedical Research Enterprise. One Health is defined as the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working together to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how the concept of One Health can advance the NIH mission in regard to both basic and applied research, including training of the biomedical work force, concentrating on the veterinarian scientist.
Views: 198 NIHOD
Canon law (Catholic Church)
 
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The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church. It was the first modern Western legal system. Positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from the supreme legislator, who possesses the totality of legislative, executive, and judicial power in his person, while particular laws derive formal authority from a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator. The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: laws, courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code, principles of legal interpretation, and coercive penalties. It lacks civilly-binding force in most secular jurisdictions. Specialists in the field are usually called canonists. Canon law as a field is called canonistics. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2028 Audiopedia
Filioque | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filioque 00:03:30 1 Controversy 00:08:24 2 History 00:08:33 2.1 New Testament 00:11:52 2.2 Church fathers 00:12:01 2.2.1 Cappadocian Fathers 00:14:30 2.2.2 Alexandrian Fathers 00:17:05 2.2.3 Latin Fathers 00:23:33 2.2.4 Modern Roman Catholic theologians 00:24:14 2.3 Nicene and Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creeds 00:29:15 2.4 Third Ecumenical Council 00:31:54 2.5 Fourth Ecumenical Council 00:33:20 2.6 Possible earliest use in the Creed 00:35:40 2.7 Procession of the Holy Spirit 00:42:54 2.8 "From the Father through the Son" 00:44:47 2.9 First Eastern opposition 00:46:55 2.10 Claims of authenticity 00:55:21 2.11 Photian controversy 00:59:50 2.12 Adoption in the Roman Rite 01:01:28 2.13 East–West controversy 01:07:30 2.14 Councils of Jerusalem, 1583 and 1672 AD 01:08:14 2.15 Reformation 01:09:37 3 Present position of various churches 01:09:48 3.1 Roman Catholicism 01:14:43 3.2 Anglicanism 01:16:58 3.3 Protestantism 01:17:51 3.4 Eastern Orthodoxy 01:19:34 3.4.1 Views of Eastern Orthodox saints 01:22:09 3.4.2 Eastern Orthodox view of Roman Catholic theology 01:28:54 3.4.3 Eastern Orthodox theology 01:31:55 3.4.4 Modern theology 01:37:02 3.5 Oriental Orthodox Churches 01:37:30 3.6 Church of the East 01:38:10 4 Recent theological perspectives 01:38:22 4.1 Linguistic issues 01:41:49 4.2 Some Orthodox reconsideration of the iFilioque/i 01:44:38 4.3 Inclusion in the Nicene Creed 01:47:29 4.4 Focus on Saint Maximus as a point of mutual agreement 01:53:51 4.5 iPer Filium/i 01:54:18 5 Recent attempts at reconciliation 01:55:39 5.1 Old Catholic Church 01:56:48 5.2 Anglican Communion 01:58:37 5.3 World Council of Churches 01:59:26 5.4 Roman Catholic Church 01:59:51 5.5 Joint statement of Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic theologians 02:03:05 6 Summary 02:06:52 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7754167855190378 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Filioque (Ecclesiastical Latin: [filiˈɔkwe]) is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (commonly known as the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity. The Latin term Filioque describes the Holy Spirit as proceeding from both the Father and the Son, (not from the Father only). In the Nicene Creed it is translated by the English phrase "and [from] the Son": I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father ⟨and the Son⟩. Who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified.or in Latin: Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre ⟨Filioque⟩ procedit Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur, et cum glorificatur.Whether that term Filioque is included, as well as how it is translated and understood, can have important implications for how one understands the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, which is central to the majority of Christian churches. For some, the term implies a serious underestimation of the Father's role in the Trinity; for others, denial of what it expresses implies a serious underestimation of the role of the Son in the Trinity. Over time, the term became a symbol of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, although there have been attempts at resolving the conflict. Among the early attempts at harmonization are the works of Maximus the Confessor, who notably was canonised independently by both Eastern and Western churches. The Filioque is included in the form of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed used in most Western Christian churches, first appearing in the 6th century. It was accepted by the popes only in 1014 and is rejected by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Church of the East. It is not in the original text of this Creed, attributed to the second ecumenical council, Constantinople I (381), which says that t ...
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Chinese folk religion | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Chinese folk religion Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han Chinese, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods. Worship is devoted to a multiplicity of gods and immortals (神 shén), who can be deities of phenomena, of human behaviour, or progenitors of lineages. Stories regarding some of these gods are collected into the body of Chinese mythology. By the 11th century (Song period), these practices had been blended with Buddhist ideas of karma (one's own doing) and rebirth, and Taoist teachings about hierarchies of gods, to form the popular religious system which has lasted in many ways until the present day.Chinese religions have a variety of sources, local forms, founder backgrounds, and ritual and philosophical traditions. Despite this diversity, there is a common core that can be summarised as four theological, cosmological, and moral concepts: Tian (天), Heaven, the transcendent source of moral meaning; qi (氣), the breath or energy that animates the universe; jingzu (敬祖), the veneration of ancestors; and bao ying (報應), moral reciprocity; together with two traditional concepts of fate and meaning: ming yun (命運), the personal destiny or burgeoning; and yuan fen (緣分), "fateful coincidence", good and bad chances and potential relationships.Yin and yang (陰陽) is the polarity that describes the order of the universe, held in balance by the interaction of principles of growth (shen) and principles of waning (gui), with yang ("act") usually preferred over yin ("receptiveness") in common religion. Ling (靈), "numen" or "sacred", is the "medium" of the two states and the inchoate order of creation.Both the present day government of China and the imperial dynasties of the Ming and Qing tolerated village popular religious cults if they bolstered social stability but suppressed or persecuted those that they feared would undermine it. After the fall of the empire in 1911, governments and elites opposed or attempted to eradicate folk religion in order to promote "modern" values, and many condemned "feudal superstition". These conceptions of folk religion began to change in Taiwan in the late 20th century and in mainland China in the 21st. Many scholars now view folk religion in a positive light. In recent times Chinese folk religions are experiencing a revival in both mainland China and Taiwan. Some forms have received official understanding or recognition as a preservation of traditional Chinese culture, such as Mazuism and the Sanyi teaching in Fujian, Huangdi worship, and other forms of local worship, for example the Longwang, Pangu or Caishen worship.
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Henry Wolkowicz - Facial Reduction in Cone Optimization with Applications to Matrix Completions
 
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Henry Wolkowicz of University of Waterloo presents his talk "Facial Reduction in Cone Optimization with Applications to Matrix Completions" at the DIMACS Workshop on Distance Geometry: Theory and Applications. http://dimacs.rutgers.edu/Workshops/Distance/program.html The workshop on was held from Tuesday, July 26, 2016 to Friday, July 29, 2016 at the Computing Research & Education Building on Busch Campus of Rutgers University. For more information visit http://dimacs.rutgers.edu
Views: 242 Rutgers University
Michel Foucault | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Michel Foucault Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Paul-Michel Foucault (; 15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault (French: [miʃɛl fuko]), was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in communication studies, sociology, cultural studies, literary theory, feminism, and critical theory. Activist groups have also found his theories compelling. Born in Poitiers, France, into an upper-middle-class family, Foucault was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV, at the École Normale Supérieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser, and at the University of Paris (Sorbonne), where he earned degrees in philosophy and psychology. After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness (1961). After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and The Order of Things (1966), publications which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralism, from which he later distanced himself. These first three histories exemplified a historiographical technique Foucault was developing called "archaeology". From 1966 to 1968, Foucault lectured at the University of Tunis before returning to France, where he became head of the philosophy department at the new experimental university of Paris VIII. Foucault subsequently published The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969). In 1970, Foucault was admitted to the Collège de France, a membership he retained until his death. He also became active in a number of left-wing groups involved in campaigns against racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform. Foucault later published Discipline and Punish (1975) and The History of Sexuality (1976), in which he developed archaeological and genealogical methods which emphasized the role that power plays in society. Foucault died in Paris of neurological problems compounded by HIV/AIDS; he became the first public figure in France to die from the disease. His partner Daniel Defert founded the AIDES charity in his memory.
Views: 33 wikipedia tts
Confucianism
 
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Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system, on occasion described as a religion, developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (孔夫子 Kǒng Fūzǐ, or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE). Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han Dynasty. Following the official abandonment of Legalism in China after the Qin Dynasty, Confucianism became the official state ideology of the Han. Nonetheless, from the Han period onwards, most Chinese emperors have used a mix of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling doctrine. The disintegration of the Han in the second century CE opened the way for the soteriological doctrines of Buddhism and Taoism to dominate intellectual life at that time. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed aspects on the model of Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism. The New Culture intellectuals of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses. They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings, some of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People's Republic of China. In the late twentieth century, some people credited Confucianism with the rise of the East Asian economy and it enjoyed a rise in popularity both in China and abroad. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1763 Audiopedia
Computational Methods of Drug Discovery and Design - Module 6, Session 3
 
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Computational Methods of Drug Discovery and Design - Module 6, Session 3 with Dr. Glen Kellogg This is Module 6, Session 3, of the NIH Clinical Center's "Principles of Clinical Pharmacology" course. The course is a lecture series covering the fundamentals of clinical pharmacology as a translational scientific discipline focused on rational drug development and utilization in therapeutics. If you have any questions or need additional information regarding the Principles of Clinical Pharmacology course, please email the course coordinator at: [email protected]
Views: 217 NIH Clinical Center
Thomas Hobbes | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Thomas Hobbes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thomas Hobbes (; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, jurisprudence, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy. Though on rational grounds a champion of absolutism for the sovereign, Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law that leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy.
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George Berkeley | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: George Berkeley Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= George Berkeley (; 12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers and, as a result, cannot exist without being perceived. Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism. Berkeley was the namesake of the city of Berkeley, California, which is perhaps most famous as the home of the prestigious university. In 1709, Berkeley published his first major work, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, in which he discussed the limitations of human vision and advanced the theory that the proper objects of sight are not material objects, but light and colour. This foreshadowed his chief philosophical work, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, in 1710, which, after its poor reception, he rewrote in dialogue form and published under the title Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous in 1713.In this book, Berkeley's views were represented by Philonous (Greek: "lover of mind"), while Hylas (Greek: "matter") embodies the Irish thinker's opponents, in particular John Locke. Berkeley argued against Isaac Newton's doctrine of absolute space, time and motion in De Motu (On Motion), published 1721. His arguments were a precursor to the views of Mach and Einstein. In 1732, he published Alciphron, a Christian apologetic against the free-thinkers, and in 1734, he published The Analyst, a critique of the foundations of calculus, which was influential in the development of mathematics. His last major philosophical work, Siris (1744), begins by advocating the medicinal use of tar water and then continues to discuss a wide range of topics, including science, philosophy, and theology. Interest in Berkeley's work increased after World War II because he tackled many of the issues of paramount interest to philosophy in the 20th century, such as the problems of perception, the difference between primary and secondary qualities, and the importance of language.
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Gene expression | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_expression 00:02:09 1 Mechanism 00:02:18 1.1 Transcription 00:05:45 1.2 RNA processing 00:08:57 1.3 Non-coding RNA maturation 00:11:48 1.4 RNA export 00:12:38 1.5 Translation 00:15:33 1.6 Folding 00:17:27 1.7 Translocation 00:18:04 1.8 Protein transport 00:19:10 2 Regulation of gene expression 00:22:08 2.1 Transcriptional regulation 00:25:24 2.2 Transcriptional regulation in cancer 00:26:50 2.3 Post-transcriptional regulation 00:28:32 2.4 Three prime untranslated regions and microRNAs 00:31:42 2.5 Translational regulation 00:32:20 2.6 Protein degradation 00:32:54 3 Measurement 00:34:21 3.1 mRNA quantification 00:38:25 3.2 RNA profiles in Wikipedia 00:39:20 3.3 Protein quantification 00:40:32 3.4 Localisation 00:42:33 4 Expression system 00:43:45 4.1 Inducible expression 00:44:10 4.2 In nature 00:45:03 5 Gene networks 00:46:37 6 Techniques and tools 00:47:34 7 Gene expression databases Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8235824589207714 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism. Regulation of gene expression is thus critical to an organism's development.
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Optimization (mathematics) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_optimization 00:01:02 1 Optimization problems 00:08:17 2 Notation 00:08:33 2.1 Minimum and maximum value of a function 00:10:33 2.2 Optimal input arguments 00:17:31 3 History 00:18:38 4 Major subfields 00:24:43 4.1 Multi-objective optimization 00:26:48 4.2 Multi-modal optimization 00:27:53 5 Classification of critical points and extrema 00:28:05 5.1 Feasibility problem 00:29:01 5.2 Existence 00:29:34 5.3 Necessary conditions for optimality 00:30:43 5.4 Sufficient conditions for optimality 00:31:52 5.5 Sensitivity and continuity of optima 00:32:30 5.6 Calculus of optimization 00:34:02 6 Computational optimization techniques 00:34:35 6.1 Optimization algorithms 00:38:54 6.2 Iterative methods 00:44:03 6.3 Global convergence 00:45:08 6.4 Heuristics 00:45:39 7 Applications 00:45:49 7.1 Mechanics 00:47:20 7.2 Economics and finance 00:49:52 7.3 Electrical engineering 00:50:43 7.4 Civil engineering 00:51:12 7.5 Operations research 00:51:54 7.6 Control engineering 00:52:39 7.7 Geophysics 00:53:09 7.8 Molecular modeling 00:53:26 7.9 Computational systems biology 00:54:22 8 Solvers 00:54:31 9 See also 00:54:41 10 Notes 00:54:50 11 Further reading 00:54:59 11.1 Comprehensive 00:55:08 11.1.1 Undergraduate level 00:57:05 11.1.2 Graduate level 01:02:10 11.2 Continuous optimization 01:06:20 11.3 Combinatorial optimization 01:09:34 11.4 Relaxation (extension method) 01:11:28 12 Journals 01:12:06 13 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7803214045269206 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.In the simplest case, an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. The generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations constitutes a large area of applied mathematics. More generally, optimization includes finding "best available" values of some objective function given a defined domain (or input), including a variety of different types of objective functions and different types of domains.
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Social justice | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Social justice Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, and social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has often referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice.Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation. The relevant institutions often include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, and equal opportunity.Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use. Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender, racial and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, prisoners, the environment, and the physically and developmentally disabled.While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly from the 1840s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is typically credited with coining the term, and it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved that the use of the expression "social justice" is older (even before the 19th century). In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more, particularly Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. From the early 20th century it was also embedded in international law and institutions; the preamble to establish the International Labour Organization recalled that "universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice." In the later 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract, primarily by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971). In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education.Some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard; and that while there is a legal definition of what is just and equitable "there is no test of what is socially unjust", and further that social justice is often used for the reallocation of resources based on an arbitrary standard which may in fact be inequitable or unjust.
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Historians of science | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:47:06
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science 00:02:19 1 Early cultures 00:03:55 1.1 Ancient Near East 00:08:57 1.2 Egypt 00:10:42 1.3 Greco-Roman world 00:19:48 1.4 India 00:26:00 1.5 China 00:34:24 2 In the Middle Ages 00:34:48 2.1 Byzantine Empire 00:37:30 2.2 Islamic world 00:43:14 2.3 Western Europe 00:49:12 3 Impact of science in Europe 00:52:03 3.1 Age of Enlightenment 00:53:39 3.2 Romanticism in science 00:54:30 4 Modern science 00:55:07 4.1 Natural sciences 00:55:16 4.1.1 Physics 01:00:19 4.1.2 Chemistry 01:03:29 4.1.3 Geology 01:08:51 4.1.4 Astronomy 01:11:03 4.1.5 Biology and medicine 01:14:49 4.1.6 Ecology 01:15:54 4.2 Social sciences 01:16:20 4.2.1 Political science 01:21:38 4.2.2 Linguistics 01:23:06 4.2.3 Economics 01:27:10 4.2.4 Psychology 01:29:39 4.2.5 Sociology 01:33:14 4.2.6 Anthropology 01:35:46 4.3 Emerging disciplines 01:38:04 5 Academic study 01:40:10 5.1 Theories and sociology of the history of science 01:45:15 5.2 Plight of many scientific innovators Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8096005376498578 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences (the history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship). Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real-world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science. The English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, investigators of nature called themselves "natural philosophers". While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales and Aristotle), and the scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.From the 18th through the late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs. More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems within a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray the history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any actual scientific progress but only to the illusion that it has occurred.
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Natural computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_computing 00:02:46 1 Nature-inspired models of computation 00:03:33 1.1 Cellular automata 00:04:47 1.2 Neural computation 00:08:16 1.3 Evolutionary computation 00:11:48 1.4 Swarm intelligence 00:14:08 1.5 Artificial immune systems 00:15:34 1.6 Membrane computing 00:17:36 1.7 Amorphous computing 00:18:51 2 Synthesizing nature by means of computing 00:19:03 2.1 Artificial life 00:21:31 3 Nature-inspired novel hardware 00:22:07 3.1 Molecular computing 00:25:40 3.2 Quantum computing 00:27:57 4 Nature as information processing 00:28:29 4.1 Systems biology 00:33:43 4.2 Synthetic biology 00:36:13 4.3 Cellular computing 00:38:30 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7677558205663949 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Natural computing, also called natural computation, is a terminology introduced to encompass three classes of methods: 1) those that take inspiration from nature for the development of novel problem-solving techniques; 2) those that are based on the use of computers to synthesize natural phenomena; and 3) those that employ natural materials (e.g., molecules) to compute. The main fields of research that compose these three branches are artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems, fractal geometry, artificial life, DNA computing, and quantum computing, among others. Computational paradigms studied by natural computing are abstracted from natural phenomena as diverse as self-replication, the functioning of the brain, Darwinian evolution, group behavior, the immune system, the defining properties of life forms, cell membranes, and morphogenesis. Besides traditional electronic hardware, these computational paradigms can be implemented on alternative physical media such as biomolecules (DNA, RNA), or trapped-ion quantum computing devices. Dually, one can view processes occurring in nature as information processing. Such processes include self-assembly, developmental processes, gene regulation networks, protein–protein interaction networks, biological transport (active transport, passive transport) networks, and gene assembly in unicellular organisms. Efforts to understand biological systems also include engineering of semi-synthetic organisms, and understanding the universe itself from the point of view of information processing. Indeed, the idea was even advanced that information is more fundamental than matter or energy. The Zuse-Fredkin thesis, dating back to the 1960s, states that the entire universe is a huge cellular automaton which continuously updates its rules. Recently it has been suggested that the whole universe is a quantum computer that computes its own behaviour.
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East-West Schism | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: East-West Schism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which had lasted until the 11th century. The Schism was the culmination of theological and political differences between the Christian East and West which had developed over the preceding centuries.
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