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What is CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE? What does CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE mean? CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE meaning
 
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What is CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE? What does CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE mean? CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE meaning - CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE definition - CRYPTOGENIC DISEASE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A cryptogenic disease is a disease of which the cause is unknown. It may be used in a particular case, when the nature of the patient's condition is known but the cause has not been found (e.g. cryptogenic stroke). The word cryptogenic also appears in the names of some disease entities, when the situation is sufficiently common to be considered a diagnosis in its own right (e.g. cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis). Cryptogenic, idiopathic and primary may all be used in both these senses, but cryptogenic is more likely to be used where there is presumed to be a simple cause but this happens to have eluded discovery. Cryptogenic is used in this technical sense in the description of epilepsy syndromes (although the distinction has now been officially abandoned). In practice, the term cryptogenic is largely restricted to certain specific conditions. These include: diseases of the lung: cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. diseases of the liver: cryptogenic cirrhosis, cryptogenic hepatitis. diseases of the brain: cryptogenic stroke, cryptogenic epilepsy.
Views: 465 The Audiopedia
Ischemic stroke | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke 00:03:13 1 Classification 00:03:54 1.1 Definition 00:04:59 1.2 Ischemic 00:06:58 1.3 Hemorrhagic 00:08:32 2 Signs and symptoms 00:09:15 2.1 Early recognition 00:10:56 2.2 Subtypes 00:13:39 2.3 Associated symptoms 00:14:07 3 Causes 00:14:16 3.1 Thrombotic stroke 00:16:09 3.2 Embolic stroke 00:18:24 3.3 Cerebral hypoperfusion 00:19:25 3.4 Venous thrombosis 00:19:52 3.5 Intracerebral hemorrhage 00:20:51 3.6 Other 00:21:04 3.7 Silent stroke 00:22:14 4 Pathophysiology 00:22:23 4.1 Ischemic 00:26:34 4.2 Hemorrhagic 00:27:20 5 Diagnosis 00:28:03 5.1 Physical examination 00:28:27 5.2 Imaging 00:29:48 5.3 Underlying cause 00:31:44 5.4 Misdiagnosis 00:33:08 6 Prevention 00:34:05 6.1 Risk factors 00:35:49 6.1.1 Blood pressure 00:36:47 6.1.2 Blood lipids 00:37:16 6.1.3 Diabetes mellitus 00:37:43 6.1.4 Anticoagulation drugs 00:39:23 6.1.5 Surgery 00:41:01 6.1.6 Diet 00:41:23 6.2 Women 00:41:58 6.3 Previous stroke or TIA 00:43:15 7 Management 00:43:24 7.1 Ischemic stroke 00:44:27 7.1.1 Thrombolysis 00:46:35 7.1.2 Surgery 00:47:49 7.2 Hemorrhagic stroke 00:48:50 7.3 Stroke unit 00:49:22 7.4 Rehabilitation 00:55:56 7.5 Self-management 00:56:47 8 Prognosis 01:00:44 9 Epidemiology 01:03:09 10 History 01:05:12 11 Research 01:05:21 11.1 Angioplasty and stenting 01:05:39 11.2 Neuroprotection Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9273800195716434 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, dizziness, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan. A CT scan can rule out bleeding, but may not necessarily rule out ischemia, which early on typically does not show up on a CT scan. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.In 2013 approximately 6.9 million people had an ischemic stroke and 3.4 million people had a hemorrhagic stroke. In 2015 th ...
Views: 72 wikipedia tts
Stroke | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Stroke 00:03:11 1 Classification 00:03:52 1.1 Definition 00:04:57 1.2 Ischemic 00:06:52 1.3 Hemorrhagic 00:08:26 2 Signs and symptoms 00:09:09 2.1 Early recognition 00:10:49 2.2 Subtypes 00:13:30 2.3 Associated symptoms 00:13:58 3 Causes 00:14:07 3.1 Thrombotic stroke 00:15:59 3.2 Embolic stroke 00:18:14 3.3 Cerebral hypoperfusion 00:19:14 3.4 Venous thrombosis 00:19:40 3.5 Intracerebral hemorrhage 00:20:40 3.6 Other 00:20:54 3.7 Silent stroke 00:22:02 4 Pathophysiology 00:22:12 4.1 Ischemic 00:26:22 4.2 Hemorrhagic 00:27:09 5 Diagnosis 00:27:51 5.1 Physical examination 00:28:15 5.2 Imaging 00:29:37 5.3 Underlying cause 00:31:32 5.4 Misdiagnosis 00:32:54 6 Prevention 00:33:51 6.1 Risk factors 00:35:34 6.1.1 Blood pressure 00:36:33 6.1.2 Blood lipids 00:37:01 6.1.3 Diabetes mellitus 00:37:28 6.1.4 Anticoagulation drugs 00:39:07 6.1.5 Surgery 00:40:41 6.1.6 Diet 00:41:03 6.2 Women 00:41:38 6.3 Previous stroke or TIA 00:42:53 7 Management 00:43:02 7.1 Ischemic stroke 00:44:05 7.1.1 Thrombolysis 00:46:12 7.1.2 Surgery 00:47:25 7.2 Hemorrhagic stroke 00:48:26 7.3 Stroke unit 00:48:56 7.4 Rehabilitation 00:55:28 7.5 Self-management 00:56:19 8 Prognosis 01:00:15 9 Epidemiology 01:02:38 10 History 01:04:39 11 Research 01:04:48 11.1 Angioplasty and stenting 01:05:06 11.2 Neuroprotection Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, dizziness, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan. A CT scan can rule out bleeding, but may not necessarily rule out ischemia, which early on typically does not show up on a CT scan. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.In 2013 approximately 6.9 million people had an ischemic stroke and 3.4 million people had a hemorrhagic stroke. In 2015 there were about 42.4 million people who had previously had a stroke and were still alive. Between 1990 and 2010 the number of strokes which occurred each year decreased by approximately 10% ...
Views: 45 wikipedia tts
Shock Explained Clearly - Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, and Septic
 
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Understand shock (cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and septic) with clear illustrations from Dr. Seheult of http://www.medcram.com. This is video 1 of 2 on shock (the types of shock and treatment). Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD Clinical and Exam Preparation Instructor Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine. MedCram: Medical topics explained clearly including: Asthma, COPD, Acute Renal Failure, Mechanical Ventilation, Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve, Hypertension, Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Medical Acid Base, VQ Mismatch, Hyponatremia, Liver Function Tests, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), Adrenal Gland, Pneumonia Treatment, any many others. New topics are often added weekly- please subscribe to help support MedCram and become notified when new videos have been uploaded. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=medcramvideos Recommended Audience: Health care professionals and medical students: including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, respiratory therapists, EMT and paramedics, and many others. Review for USMLE, MCAT, PANCE, NCLEX, NAPLEX, NDBE, RN, RT, MD, DO, PA, NP school and board examinations. More from MedCram: Complete Video library: https://www.youtube.com/c/medcram Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MedCram Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/1/+Medcram Twitter: https://twitter.com/MedCramVideos Produced by Kyle Allred PA-C Please note: MedCram medical videos, medical lectures, medical illustrations, and medical animations are for medical educational and exam preparation purposes, and not intended to replace recommendations by your health care provider.
Stroke | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:24:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke 00:04:12 1 Classification 00:05:03 1.1 Definition 00:06:25 1.2 Ischemic 00:08:50 1.3 Hemorrhagic 00:10:48 2 Signs and symptoms 00:11:42 2.1 Early recognition 00:13:50 2.2 Subtypes 00:17:15 2.3 Associated symptoms 00:17:49 3 Causes 00:17:58 3.1 Thrombotic stroke 00:20:20 3.2 Embolic stroke 00:23:12 3.3 Cerebral hypoperfusion 00:24:30 3.4 Venous thrombosis 00:25:01 3.5 Intracerebral hemorrhage 00:26:15 3.6 Other 00:26:31 3.7 Silent stroke 00:27:58 4 Pathophysiology 00:28:08 4.1 Ischemic 00:33:30 4.2 Hemorrhagic 00:34:28 5 Diagnosis 00:35:20 5.1 Physical examination 00:35:49 5.2 Imaging 00:37:29 5.3 Underlying cause 00:39:56 5.4 Misdiagnosis 00:41:42 6 Prevention 00:42:54 6.1 Risk factors 00:45:06 6.1.1 Blood pressure 00:46:20 6.1.2 Blood lipids 00:46:56 6.1.3 Diabetes mellitus 00:47:29 6.1.4 Anticoagulation drugs 00:49:44 6.1.5 Surgery 00:51:47 6.1.6 Diet 00:52:13 6.2 Women 00:52:57 6.3 Previous stroke or TIA 00:54:32 7 Management 00:54:41 7.1 Ischemic stroke 00:56:01 7.1.1 Thrombolysis 00:58:46 7.1.2 Endovascular treatment 00:59:42 7.1.3 Craniectomy 01:00:39 7.2 Hemorrhagic stroke 01:01:55 7.3 Stroke unit 01:02:33 7.4 Rehabilitation 01:11:02 7.5 Self-management 01:12:06 8 Prognosis 01:17:07 9 Epidemiology 01:20:14 10 History 01:22:50 11 Research 01:22:59 11.1 Angioplasty and stenting 01:23:21 11.2 Neuroprotection Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8270635515188173 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. Both result in parts of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, dizziness, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan. A CT scan can rule out bleeding, but may not necessarily rule out ischemia, which early on typically does not show up on a CT scan. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.In 2013 approximately 6.9 million people had an ischemic stroke and 3.4 million ...
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
What is TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM? What does TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM mean?
 
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What is TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM? What does TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM mean? TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM meaning - TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM definition - TRANSTHORACIC ECHOCARDIOGRAM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is the most common type of echocardiogram, which is a still or moving image of the internal parts of the heart using ultrasound. In this case, the probe (or ultrasonic transducer) is placed on the chest or abdomen of the subject to get various views of the heart. It is used as a non-invasive assessment of the overall health of the heart, including a patient's heart valves and degree of heart muscle contraction (an indicator of the ejection fraction). The images are displayed on a monitor for real-time viewing and then recorded. An Echocardiogram can be used to evaluate all four chambers of the heart. It can determine the strength of the heart, the condition of the heart valves, the lining of the heart (the endocardium), and the aorta. It can be used to detect a heart attack, enlargement or hypertrophy of the heart and infiltration of the heart from an abnormal substance. Weakness of the heart, cardiac tumors and a variety of other findings can be diagnosed with an echocardiogram. With advanced measurements of the movement of the tissue with time (Tissue Doppler), it can measure diastolic function, fluid status, and ventricular dyssynchrony. TTE in adults is also of limited use for the structures at the back of the heart, such as the left atrial appendage. Transesophageal echocardiography may be more accurate than TTE because it excludes the variables previously mentioned and allows closer visualization of common sites for vegetations and other abnormalities. Transesophageal Echocardiography also affords better visualization of prosthetic heart valves and clots within the four chambers of the heart. This type of Echocardiogram may be a better option for patients with thick chests, abnormal chest walls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the obese. "Bubble contrast TTE" involves the injection of agitated saline into a vein, followed by an Echocardiographic study. The bubbles are initially detected in the right atrium and right ventricle. If bubbles appear in the left heart, this may indicate a shunt, such as a patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or arteriovenous malformations in the lungs. If your doctor deems it necessary, a stress TTE may be performed. This can be accomplished by either exercising on a bike or treadmill, or by medicine given through an IV along with a contrast agent to make your bodily fluids show up brighter. This allows a comparison between your heart at rest and your heart when it is beating at a faster rate. (Transthoracic Echocardiogram, n.d.) There are some risks associated when having an echocardiogram performed. It is possible that the images will not show up clearly enough, which can cause a misdiagnosis.
Views: 270 The Audiopedia
Bundle Branch Block, Animation.
 
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Understanding ECGs of Left and Right Bundle Branch Blocks (LBBB and RBBB). This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/cardiology-and-vascular-diseases ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Sue Stern. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Bundle branch blocks happen when there is an obstruction in one of the bundle branches. The names “left bundle branch block” and “right bundle branch block” indicate the side that is affected. In a normal heart, the two ventricles are depolarized simultaneously by the two bundles and contract at the same time. In bundle branch blocks, the UN-affected ventricle depolarizes first. The electrical impulses THEN move through the myocardium to the other side. This results in a DELAYED and SLOWED depolarization of the affected ventricle, hence a broader QRS complex – typically longer than 120 milliseconds; and a loss in ventricular synchrony. Left and right bundle branch blocks are diagnosed and differentiated by looking at ECG recordings obtained from the CHEST leads, which register signal movements in a horizontal plane. Of these, the most useful are leads V1 and V6 as they are best located to detect impulses moving between the left and right ventricles. Activation of the ventricles starts with the interventricular septum. In normal conduction, depolarization of the septum is initiated from the left bundle going to the right, TOWARD V1 and AWAY from V6. This results in a small positive deflection in V1 and a negative deflection in V6. The signals then move both directions to the two ventricles, but as the left ventricle is usually much larger, the NET movement is to the left, AWAY from V1, TOWARD V6. This corresponds to a negative wave in V1 and a positive wave in V6. In RIGHT bundle branch block the initial septal activation is unchanged. The left ventricle depolarizes NORMALLY toward V6, away from V1, producing a positive deflection in V6, negative in V1. The impulses then REVERSE the direction spreading to the right ventricle, hence a subsequent negative wave in V6, positive in V1. Lead V1 gives a characteristic M shape with a terminal R wave, while V6 sees a broader S wave. In LEFT bundle branch block septal depolarization is REVERSED, from right to left, giving a negative wave in V1. The right ventricle activates first, with the signals moving to the right, generating a small upward deflection. Depolarization then spreads to the larger left ventricle, resulting in a large downward deflection. Lead V6 sees the opposite, producing a wide, characteristic “bunny ears” QRS complex with two R waves. In some cases, right ventricular depolarization may not be visible. Some people with bundle branch blocks are born with this condition. They usually do not have any symptoms and do not require treatments. Others acquire it as a consequence of another heart disease. These patients need monitoring, and in severe cases, a pacemaker may be required to restore ventricular synchrony
Views: 179515 Alila Medical Media
Understanding Infantile Spasms
 
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For new parents, watching a young baby's every movement typically brings much joy. But when a baby exhibits signs and symptoms of a serious neurological condition such as infantile spasms, that joy can quickly turn into concern about the baby's well-being. In this video you will hear from child neurologists who treat children with infantile spasms. And you will hear from families who have experienced this disorder first-hand. We hope their stories and perspectives inspire you and encourage you to seek more information. Dr. John Bodensteiner, President of the Child Neurology Society Professor of Child Neurology Barrow Neurologic Institute
Views: 722870 CNFVideos1