ISCCM’s – CCIDC (Critical Care Infectious Disease Course) - A 20 Modules course on Infections prevalent in Critical Care Units Topics Covered: http://isccmcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=course-contents Faculty: http://isccmcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=faculty-ccidc ISCCM: http://isccm.org http://isccmcourses.org
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Diarrhea is defined as abnormally liquid or unformed stool that is produced at high frequency (greater than 200g/day) lasting less than 14 days. This handwritten video lecture will review causes, clinical findings, investigations work and management of diarrhea for medical students taking the USMLE ETIOLOGY or CAUSES Infectious is number one cause of diarrhea (90%). Non infectious include medications, toxin ingestion, ischemia. CLINICAL FINDINGS Vomiting and diarrhea is associated with Staph aureus, Bacillus Cereus, Norwalk Virus. Watery Diarrhea is assoicated with Clostridium perfringens, ETEC, and viral diarrhea. Inflammatory diarrhea is caused by campylobacter, salmonella, EHEC, shigella. Inflammatory diarrhea is also associated with pain and fever. Systemic symptoms are reactive arthritis which is associated with slamonella, campylobacter, shigella, yersinia. Reactive arthritis is associated with arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivits. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is caused by E Coli (0157:H7) and Shigella. Syptoms are related to hemolysis and uremia. EVALUATION of Diarrhea. If mild than no work up is necessary. However, alarm signs require work up. These alarm signs are severe dehydration, bloody stool, Fever greater than 38.5. History of antibiotic use, abdominal pain and immunocompromised patients should get a workup done. First step in evaluation is to take a thorough history to limit and narrow down the pathogen causing diarrhea. If travel history focus on Giardia (Russia, Swimming, Mountanous), ETEC, Norovirus (cruise ship). What type of food have they ate. Meat food poisoning is caused by staph aureus (egg), clostridium perfringens (canned meat), EHEC (hamburgers), Bacillus (Chicken fried rice), Salmonella (eggs and veg), Yersinia (Milk and cheese), Listeria (more comon in pregnant women). Poultry is primarily associated campylobacter. Diarrhea form seafood is associated with vibrio cholera and vibro parahemolyticus. Patients associated with daycare and get diarrhea there are certain pathogens. Shigella, Rotavirus, Norovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium. Hospital Acquired Diarrhea is primarily associated with clostridium dificile (anti-biotics). Immunocompromised patients have increased risk of cryptosporidium and isospora. Pathogens associated with fever and diarrhea suggests invasive pathogens such as salmonella, shigella, campylobacter as well as virus and entamoeba histolytica and clostridium dificile. Time can also help determine the cause of diarrhea. If vomiting occurs 1-8 hours after heating then a preformed toxin was ingested. This is most commonly associated with bacillus cereus, S. aureus and Clostridium perfringens. If vomtiing occures 8-72 hours then diarrhea is caused by enterotoxin, primarily Vibro cholera, ETEC. 1-8 days are caused by enteroadherent which prevents absorption of food into gut. This is caused by EPEC and EHEC, Giardia and cryptosporidium. Lab investigation for diarrhea should be focused on details from history. CBC, Hematocrit, and WBC is important. Stool Studies - fecal leukoctyesfor WBC in stool are positive in salmonella shigella but this is also found in Ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease as they all cause some sort of inflammation. If blood is present then dysentary pathogens such as campylobacter, salmonella, enterhemorrhagic E. Coli, and entamoeba histolytica. Stool culture is not done routinely, unless it is very severe infection. Ova and parasites if there is persistent diarrhea that is not going away, recent travel, daycare, homosexual or AIDS patients. If there is bloody diarrhea but leukocyte negative. Fecal antigen test for Giardia, and Rotovirus. Testing for toxin such as clostridium dificile if there is a history of anti-biotics. Fecal osmolar gap and fecal fat is used in chornic diarrhea, not acute. TREATMENT Initial treatment for diarrhea focuses on relieving dehydration with oral rehydration therapy. Use IV if very severe. Gatorade is not optimal, but it is okay. Empirical anti-Biotics can be given for diarrhea, but it is not always required because most are self-limiting. Sometimes anti-biotics can actually worsen symtoms of diarrhea. Most commonly prescribed is flouroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin. Clostridium dificile of metronidazole, vancomycin. EHEC should not be given anti-biotic due to release of shiga toxin. Culture and sensitivity can guide the rest of treatment.
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Video related to Polimi Open Knowledge (POK) - http://www.pok.polimi.it/ BOlogna Open Knowledge (BOOK) - http://book.unibo.it/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
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Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent. ... A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind is said to be immunocompromised.
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n this month’s “Hot Topic,” Bobbi Pritt, M.D., will discuss a powerful new technology called “multiplex molecular testing” that can assist in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections.
Views: 678 Mayo Clinic Laboratories
*Subscribe for more great NCLEX videos: https://www.goo.gl/8mBXbY Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an acquired infection that causes severe immune dysfunction. HIV infection causes the person to be unusually susceptible to other life-threatening infections and malignancies. HIV is caused by a retrovirus that in its most serious form, results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Click here: https://www.mometrix.com/academy/nclex-exam/drug-suffixes/ ► Visit: http://www.mometrix.com/academy ► Subscribe to more free test preparation videos: http://bit.ly/1dJH1yb ► Follow Mometrix Academy on Pinterest: http://bit.ly/1hZE2Jj ► Learn more About Us: http://bit.ly/1ewIADC
Views: 7674 NCLEX Study Guide
SKIP AHEAD: 0:32 – Intro to Fungi 2:17 – Systemic vs. Opportunistic Mycoses 4:52 – Coccidioidomycosis 5:41 – Histoplasmosis 6:23 – Blastomycosis 6:54 – Geographic Map of Systemic Fungi 7:26 – Cryptococcus 8:17 - Aspergillus 9:30 – PCP and Pneumocystis 10:06 - Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis & Rhizopus) 11:06 – Tineae (Athletes Foot, Ring worm, Tinea Versicolor …) 12:50 – Candida 14:07 – Sporothrix 14:29 – Azoles (Diflucan, Flucanazole, ketoconazole…) 15:20 – Amphotericin B & Nystatin 15:58 - Capsofungin & Micanofungin For the text and pictures in this video please go to my website http://www.stomponstep1.com/fungal-infections-antifungal-treatments-ringworm-candida-aspergillus-histoplasmosis/ Pictures Used: “Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule.jpg via Public Domain ” Histoplasmosis Capsulatum” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoplasmosis#/media/File:Histoplasmosis_capsulatum.jpg via Public Domain “Blastomyces dermatitidis” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastomycosis#/media/File:Blastomyces_dermatitidis_GMS.jpeg via Public Domain Derivative of “Blastomycosis cropped” by Joel Mills available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blastomycosis_cropped.JPG via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Cryptococcus neoformans using a light India ink staining” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores.jpg via Public Domain Derivative of “Cryptoccocus Gram Film” by Graham Beards available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_Gram_film.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike Derivative of “Aspergilloma complicating tuberculosis 2” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aspergilloma_complicating_tuberculosis_2.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Aspergillosis, angioinvasive, intravascular” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390967599 via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis/mucormycosis” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390897069 via Creative Commons 2.0 Atribution Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis 1” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis,_mucormycosis_1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis” by Nephron available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Ringworm on the arm, or tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ringworm_on_the_arm,_or_tinea_corporis_due_to_Trichophyton_mentagrophytes_PHIL_2938_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Teigne - Tinea capitis” by Grook Da Oger available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teigne_-_Tinea_capitis.jpg via Creative Commons 4.0 International Attribution Share Alike License “Onychomycosis due to Trychophyton rubrum, right and left great toe” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Onychomycosis_due_to_Trychophyton_rubrum,_right_and_left_great_toe_PHIL_579_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Tinea versicolor1” by Sarahrosenau available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinea_versicolor1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Candida albicans” by Y Tambe available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candida_albicans.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike License “Human tongue infected with oral candidiasis” by James Heilman available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_tongue_infected_with_oral_candidiasis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike
Views: 15469 Stomp On Step 1
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_resistance 00:04:05 1 Definition 00:04:39 2 Overview 00:05:48 3 Causes 00:07:23 3.1 Human medicine 00:11:33 3.2 Veterinary medicine 00:12:38 3.3 Natural occurrence 00:14:42 3.4 Water pollution 00:17:12 4 Prevention 00:18:02 4.1 Duration of antibiotics 00:18:42 4.2 Monitoring and mapping 00:19:56 4.3 Limiting antibiotic use 00:21:12 4.3.1 At the hospital level 00:21:50 4.3.2 At the level of GP 00:23:19 4.3.3 At the individual level 00:23:45 4.3.4 Country examples 00:24:24 4.4 Water, sanitation, hygiene 00:27:06 4.5 Industrial wastewater treatment 00:27:31 4.6 Management in animal use 00:27:40 4.6.1 Europe 00:28:40 4.6.2 United States 00:30:07 4.7 Global action plans and awareness 00:31:39 4.7.1 Antibiotic Awareness Week 00:32:43 5 Mechanisms and organisms 00:32:53 5.1 Fundamentals 00:37:02 5.2 Bacteria 00:39:38 5.3 Viruses 00:40:49 5.4 Fungi 00:42:09 5.5 Parasites 00:43:34 6 History 00:45:36 7 Society and culture 00:46:47 7.1 Legal frameworks 00:47:46 7.1.1 U.S. 00:50:21 7.2 Policies 00:50:57 8 Further research 00:51:14 8.1 Vaccines 00:52:23 8.2 Alternating therapy 00:53:28 8.3 Development of new drugs 00:58:12 8.4 Rapid diagnostics 00:59:40 8.5 Phage therapy Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8142995496424837 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These approaches may be more expensive, more toxic or both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). Those considered extensively drug resistant (XDR) or totally drug resistant (TDR) are sometimes called "superbugs".Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as effectively and accurately targeting specific organisms is less likely to cause resistance. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, and should encourage the same of the patient, visitors, and family members.Rising drug resistance is caused mainly by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, and spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has also been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry, especially in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die; this increases the percentage of resistant bacteria which continue growing. Even at very low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need fo ...
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Johnson County is taking some protective measures at specific pools after multiple residents were recently diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis, the Johnson County Department of Health and Environment (JCDHE) said in a news release. Read more at http://m.kshb.com/1J7HKeh ◂ 41 Action News, KSHB, brings you the latest news, weather and investigative reports from both sides of the state line. We are Kansas City's Breaking News leader, bringing you the area's most accurate forecast and the latest sports coverage from KC's best team. For more download the 41 Action News mobile app: iPhone: http://bit.ly/iOS-kshb Android: http://bit.ly/kshb-android
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Babesia microti causes babesiosis, an infection that can be severe in some patients. Transmission occurs primarily by tick bites, but infections from blood transfusion may be underestimated. Would effective screening of donated blood reduce risk? New research findings are summarized in a short video. Learn more at http://nej.md/1WoeHdF
Views: 908 NEJMvideo
SKIP AHEAD: 1:18 – Wet Prep (Wet Mount) 2:54 – Vaginal pH 3:48 – Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) 6:01 – Vaginal Candida 8:01 – Trichomoniasis (Trich) For the text and pictures from this video please visit http://www.stomponstep1.com/vaginitis-candida-bv-trichomoniasis-wet-mount-whiff-test-vaginal-ph-trich-albicans-gardnerella/ Pictures Used: “ff clue cell” by isis325 available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8579634600 via Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License Derivative of “Clue cells – Pap test — very high mag” by Nephron available athttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clue_cells_-_Pap_test_–_very_high_mag.jpg via Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license “Clue cells – CDC PHIL 3720” by CDC available at via https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clue_cells_-_CDC_PHIL_3720.jpg Public Domain “Candida albicans” by Y Tambe available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candida_albicans.jpgvia Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike License Derivative of “Trichomas vaginalis oil best2” by schmidty4112 available athttps://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/6912948713 via Creative Commons 2.0 Generic Attribution License “Trichomonas vaginalis phase contrast microscopy” by Dr Graham Beards available athttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trichomonas_vaginalis_phase_contrast_microscopy.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution Share Alike License “Lips Mouth Smile Teeth Happy Laugh Red White” available at http://pixabay.com/en/lips-mouth-smile-teeth-happy-156991/ via Public Domain
Views: 15290 Stomp On Step 1
CDC ZOHU Call March 2018 Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at https://www.cdc.gov/wcms/video/low-res/onehealth/2018/13151315One_Health_Update_Call.mp4
Coccidiosis can be controlled in broilers without antibiotics as long as producers pay closer attention to hatchery coccidiosis vaccination procedures, brooding and stocking rates, Greg Mathis, PhD, president of Southern Poultry Research, told Poultry Health Today.
Views: 230 Poultry Health Today
Want to see how I heal a client’s gut? Today I am going through the Case Study of my client, Lacey. Lacey had chronic constipation, fatigue, migraines and bloating. She had tried everything! Let’s take a look at what came up on her gut panel and the protocol I used to reverse her symptoms and heal her gut. Grab the case study document with Lacey's tests and the diet, lifestyle and supplement recommendations I used to help her reverse her symptoms. Just comment "Amazing" in the comments and I'll send it to you via Facebook messenger. Want to learn how my Gut Fix 180 can help you heal IBS and other chronic GI symptoms (i.e., gas, bloating, pain and multiple food sensitivities)? Book your free consult: https://kendraperrynutrition.practicebetter.io/#/5b00569667c6b907ec4f8753/bookings?s=5b0ef88867c6b911707be700 Get my free Hormone Imbalance Cheat Sheet: https://go.kendraperry.net/free-hormone-imbalance-cheat-sheet Learn more about me: http://kendraperry.net
Views: 1241 Kendra Perry Nutrition
As part of the Water Institute's WaterTalks lecture series, Joan B. Rose, the winner of the 2016 Stockholm Water Prize and Homer Nowlin Chair in Water Research at Michigan State University, presents "Monitoring Pathogen Concentrations in Sewage to Inform Treatment Goals and Public Health Risks."
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