Home
Search results “Data mining classification table of mineral properties”
Earth Science: Crash Course History of Science #20
 
13:44
It's Earth Science time!!!! In this field, natural philosophers were asking questions like, what’s up with fossils? Are they the remains of extinct organisms? Or are they so-called “sports of nature”—rocks that just happen to look like living things but don’t /mean/ anything? And most importantly, how old is… everything? *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark Brouwer, Erika & Alexa Saur Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Nathan Taylor, Divonne Holmes à Court, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, Tim Curwick, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, Ruth Perez, Malcolm Callis, Ken Penttinen, Advait Shinde, William McGraw, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Jirat, Eric Kitchen, Ian Dundore, Chris Peters -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 155650 CrashCourse
Types of Soil Survey
 
02:37
Best offers for Gardening & Lawn Care https://amzn.to/2InnD0w --------------- Types of Soil Survey. Soil surveys are a county by county assessment of soil taxonomy, fertility and use on any given acre of land. It is a resource available to several different industries such as farming, forestry and mining. The data achieved for soil mapping is done by several different types of surveys. Table of contents Types of Soil Survey Digital Mapping 00:39 Pedometrics 01:01 Geo-statistics 01:21 Sensors 01:41 Laboratory Methods 01:56 -----------------
Views: 1176 Garden & Lawn
Lecture - 34 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
 
54:46
Lecture Series on Database Management System by Dr. S. Srinath,IIIT Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 135043 nptelhrd
Crystal Visions - Full Documentary about Crystals and Gemstones
 
01:29:55
Thanks for your Support! Crystals and gemstones have fascinated and accompanied mankind since recorded history and stories go even further back to the times of Atlantis. In this documentary 6 experts share their knowledge and unique perspective about the oldest inhabitants of earth. It starts with the history and contemporary renaissance of crystals and goes on discovering their geological and physical properties. The journey continues by exploring the different kinds of crystals and then questioning if they really have healing properties and whether those are measurable or scientifically explainable. The movie also addresses what role crystals play for us today - personally, technologically and collectively - and also their existence beyond their relationship with human beings. Buy the Full HD, Ad Free, Version of the film with Bonus Features for $12.99 here: https://crystalvisions.vhx.tv/buy/crystal-visions?code=test
Views: 477895 Crystal Visions
Is Copper A Mineral?
 
00:42
Photos of natural copper ore, minerals, crystal ores, rich copper, azurite, malachite, rhodocrosite, chrysocolla. Shtml url? Q webcache. It is found in the oxidized zones of copper depositsin cavities basalt that have been detailed description, properties, and locality information guide about metal mineral native an uncombined form which occurs as a natural. Copper was one of the first metals to be worked into implements and metal smelted from ores. Copper copper mineral information and datacopper minerals education coalition. Native copper is an element and a mineral. It occurs as native copper, in the copper sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite, carbonates azurite malachite, copper(i) oxide mineral cuprite group. Encyclopedia articles copper mineral information and data dakota matrix minerals. Uses and properties geology minerals copper. Copper copper mineral. The metal is an essential trace mineral, crucial for forming red blood cells, according to statistics and information on the worldwide supply, demand, flow of copper ore usually contains a large amount dirt, clay, variety non bearing minerals. These include azurite, malachite, chalocite, antite, chalcopyrite and bornite other copper minerals are far more economical to mine purify into metallic that is used for wiring, electrical components, pennies coins, because reacts readily with substances, it can be formed in a variety of ways the earth's crust. Copper is a common element in many minerals and sometimes occurs pure, native form. Copper copper mineral the native information and picturescopper wikipedia. It is often found in deposits with other metals such the word copper comes from latin 'cuprum', which means 'ore of cyprus'. The first step is to remove some of this waste material copper origin the name from ancient mining on island cyprus, also calledkyprios, which gave way latin word cuprum, whi bearing minerals are not only numerous, but widely though irregularly distributed. Chrysocolla and malachite also are mined for copper is found in many minerals which occur deposits large enough to mine. Copper desposits are formed minerals downunder the properties of copper australian mines copper, mineral, supplements dr13 incredible benefits facts about live sciencecopper (cu) facts, information, pictures. This is why the chemical symbol for copper cu. Copper (cu) amethyst galleries. Most of the world's copper comes from minerals chalcopyrite and chalcocite. Location houghton county, michigan, usa. Googleusercontent search. Its excellent ductility and high comments native copper forming a branching cluster of crystals with some massive calcite. Copper is one of the few metallic elements to occur in native form, although it copper produced massive stars and present earth's crust a proportion about 50 parts per million (ppm). Andrew weil, your trusted health advisor the benefits of copper are crucial for an overall healthy existence, as this mineral enables normal metabolic process in asso
Views: 876 Stores
ROC Curve of Our Classifiers - Model Building and Validation
 
02:08
This video is part of an online course, Model Building and Validation. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/ud919.
Views: 3923 Udacity
World of Dinosaurs - National Geographic Documentary HD
 
01:30:34
Most people think of dinosaurs as big, ferocious and extinct reptiles. That's largely true, but there are some misconceptions. Dinosaurs came in all shapes and sizes. Dinosaurs were the largest land animals of all time, but a great number of dinosaurs were smaller than a turkey. Dinosaurs first appeared between 247 and 240 million years ago. They ruled the Earth for about 175 million years until an extinction event 65.5 million years ago wiped out all of them, except for the avian dinosaurs. Scientists don't agree entirely on what happened, but the extinction likely was a double or triple whammy involving an asteroid impact, choking chemicals from erupting volcanoes, climate change and possibly other factors. Flying on Only the big, classic dinosaurs are extinct. Birds are living dinosaurs, most experts believe. Think of that next time a pigeon strafes you. Fossils show that some of the more advanced dinosaurs had feathers or feather-like body covering, but many of them didn't fly and probably didn't even glide. Archaeopteryx, which was for a long time considered to be the first bird (although this status is not certain), could likely launch itself from the ground, but probably couldn't fly far, according to unpublished research presented at the 2016 Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah. Instead, feathers, likely helped these bird-like dinosaurs stay warm as juveniles or send signals to other individuals. Many people think extinct flying reptiles called pterosaurs were dinosaurs. They were dinosaurs' closest relatives, but technically not dinosaurs. Pterosaurs had hollow bones, relatively large brains and eyes, and, of course, the flaps of skin extending along their arms, which were attached to the digits on their front hands. The family includes Pterodactyls, with elaborate, bony head crests and lack of teeth. Pterosaurs survived up until the mass die-off 65 million years ago, when they were going the way of the dodo along with marine reptiles and other nonavian dinosaurs. Hip check Dinosaur fossils were first recognized in the 19th century. In 1842, paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term dinosaur, derived from the Greek deinos, meaning "terrible" or "fearfully great," and sauros, meaning "lizard" or reptile." Scientists classify dinosaurs into two orders — Saurischians and Ornithischians— based on the structure of the bones in their hips. (This saurischian and ornithischian grouping is now disputed. See the "Family tree update" section below to learn more.) Most of the well-known dinosaurs — including Tyrannosaurus rex, Deinonychus and Velociraptor — fall into the order known as Saurischian dinosaurs (pronounced sor-ISK-ee-en). These "reptile-hipped" dinosaurs have a pelvis that points forward, similar to more primitive animals. They are often long-necked, have large and sharp teeth, long second fingers, and a first finger that points strongly away from the rest of the fingers. Saurischians are divided into two groups – four legged herbivores called sauropods and two-legged carnivores called theropods (living birds are in the theropod lineage). Theropods walked on two legs and were carnivorous. "Theropod" means "beast-footed" and they are some of the fearsome and most recognizable dinosaurs — including Allosaurus and T. rex. Scientists have wondered whether large theropods — such as Giganotosaurus and Spinosaurus — actively hunted their prey, or simply scavenged carcasses. The evidence points to the animals working together as opportunistic hunters: they would bring down prey, but also eat animals that were lying around. When fossil-hunters found bones with bite marks on them, they wondered if theropods engaged in cannibalism. It appears now that the animals may have scavenged their own kind, but they didn't hunt down their own. Sauropods were herbivores with long heads, long necks, and long tails. They were among the largest land animals ever, but they likely had small brains. The gentle giants like leaf-eating Apatosaurus, Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus are part of this family. Ornithischia Ornithischian (pronounced or-neh-THISK-ee-en) dinosaurs, a group that includes horned and frilled Triceratops, spiked Stegosaurus and armored Ankylosaurus, are more mild-mannered, plant eaters. These dinosaurs were beaked herbivores. Smaller than the sauropods, the Ornithischia (meaning "bird-hipped") often lived in herds and were prey to the larger species of dinosaurs. Interestingly, the Ornithischia shifted from a two-legged to a four-legged posture at least three times in their evolutionary history and scientists think they could adopt both postures early in their evolutionary history.
Views: 462262 ADVEXON TV
Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula Introduction
 
08:31
We will talk about what empirical formula and molecular formula are, how they are different, and we'll learn how to write the empirical formula for a compound when you are given the molecular formula. Molecular formulas tell you how many atoms of each element are in a compound, and empirical formulas tell you the simplest or most reduced ratio of elements in a compound. If a compound's molecular formula cannot be reduced any more, then the empirical formula is the same as the molecular formula. Also, many compounds with different molecular formula have the same empirical formula.
Views: 846606 Tyler DeWitt
Mineral | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:13:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Mineral 00:02:43 1 Definition 00:02:52 1.1 Basic definition 00:05:47 1.2 Recent advances 00:09:58 1.3 Rocks, ores, and gems 00:12:08 1.4 Nomenclature and classification 00:15:11 2 Chemistry 00:22:21 3 Physical properties 00:23:17 3.1 Crystal structure and habit 00:29:26 3.2 Hardness 00:30:21 3.3 Lustre and diaphaneity 00:31:58 3.4 Colour and streak 00:34:43 3.5 Cleavage, parting, fracture, and tenacity 00:38:36 3.6 Specific gravity 00:40:20 3.7 Other properties 00:42:32 4 Classification 00:44:40 4.1 Silicates 00:47:03 4.1.1 Tectosilicates 00:50:33 4.1.2 Phyllosilicates 00:53:01 4.1.3 Inosilicates 00:55:41 4.1.4 Cyclosilicates 00:57:07 4.1.5 Sorosilicates 00:58:24 4.1.6 Orthosilicates 01:01:06 4.2 Non-silicates 01:01:14 4.2.1 Native elements 01:02:39 4.2.2 Sulfides 01:04:07 4.2.3 Oxides 01:05:58 4.2.4 Halides 01:06:47 4.2.5 Carbonates 01:08:49 4.2.6 Sulfates 01:10:20 4.2.7 Phosphates 01:11:26 4.2.8 Organic minerals 01:12:04 5 Astrobiology 01:13:06 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. Minerals are classified by variety, species, series and group, in order of increasing generality. As of November 2018, there are more than 5,500 known mineral species; 5,389 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety, for example amethyst, a purple variety of the mineral species quartz. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity, magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity, and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a base unit of a [SiO4]4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions, which gives the shape of a tetrahedron. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses: orthosilicates (no polymerization, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (two tetrahedra bonded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three-dimensional network of tetrahedra). Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates.
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Symposium on Blockchain for Robotic Systems
 
07:48:24
Robotic systems are revolutionizing applications from transportation to health care. However, many of the characteristics that make robots ideal for future applications—such as autonomy, self-learning, and knowledge sharing—also raise concerns about the evolution of the technology. Blockchain, an emerging technology that originated in the digital currency field, shows great potential to make robotic operations more secure, autonomous, flexible, and even profitable, thereby bridging the gap between purely scientific domains and real-world applications. This symposium seeks to move beyond the classical view of robotic systems to advance our understanding about the possibilities and limitations of combining state-of-the art robotic systems with blockchain technology. More information at: https://www.media.mit.edu/events/symposium-on-blockchain-for-robotics/ License: CC-BY-4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Views: 2420 MIT Media Lab
Mod-09 Lec-39 Microbial geotechnology and Ground Improvement
 
53:46
Ground Improvement Techniques by Dr. G.L. Sivakumar Babu, Department of Civil Engineering, IISc Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 10192 nptelhrd
Mod-01 Lec-01 Introduction
 
52:54
Advanced Geotechnical Engineering by Dr. B.V.S. Viswanadham,Department of Civil Engineering,IIT Bombay.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 28272 nptelhrd
Mod-01 Lec-01 Introduction to the Modern Instrumental Methods of Analysis
 
47:46
Modern Instrumental Methods of Analysis by Dr. J.R. Mudakavi ,Department of Chemical Engineering, IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 15889 nptelhrd
3. Nuclear Experiments
 
46:42
Environmental Politics and Law (EVST 255) To illustrate the linkages among national security, secrecy, and environmental quality, Professor Wargo describes the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear tests in the 1950s. The Atomic Energy Commission collected data on the spread of radionuclides from the nuclear tests, and discovered that the radionuclides were circulating around the world. This process of discovery raised issues regarding ways to manage risks to the population while both continuing the nuclear tests and keeping them secret for national security reasons. 00:00 - Chapter 1. National Security and the Threat to Democratic Participation 05:07 - Chapter 2. A Brief History of Secrecy: 1944 - 1963 22:03 - Chapter 3. The Dose-Response Relationship 29:45 - Chapter 4. Studying Fallout Data 36:52 - Chapter 5. The Narrative Advantage of Secret Holders Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 14399 YaleCourses
Public Hearing on Section 232 National Security Investigation of Imports of Autos and Auto Parts
 
08:01:33
The U.S. Department of Commerce will host a public hearing on its Section 232 investigation of imports of automobiles and automotive parts on Thursday, July 19 in the U.S. Department of Commerce Auditorium. The hearing, which begins at 8:30 a.m., will feature testimony from approximately 45 individuals, representing domestic and international companies, industry groups, labor, and foreign countries. Officials from the Department of Defense will also be participating. Agenda: https://www.commerce.gov/sites/commerce.gov/files/autos_232_hearing_-_july_19_2018_panel_schedule_final_071218.pdf More details: https://www.commerce.gov/news/press-releases/2018/07/us-department-commerce-host-public-hearing-section-232-national-security
Mineral Hunt
 
01:02:33
Views: 68 Penn State TLT
Auburn Coach Wife Kristi Malzahn Agrees with Match & eHarmony: Men are Jerks
 
12:23
My advice is this: Settle! That's right. Don't worry about passion or intense connection. Don't nix a guy based on his annoying habit of yelling "Bravo!" in movie theaters. Overlook his halitosis or abysmal sense of aesthetics. Because if you want to have the infrastructure in place to have a family, settling is the way to go. Based on my observations, in fact, settling will probably make you happier in the long run, since many of those who marry with great expectations become more disillusioned with each passing year. (It's hard to maintain that level of zing when the conversation morphs into discussions about who's changing the diapers or balancing the checkbook.) Obviously, I wasn't always an advocate of settling. In fact, it took not settling to make me realize that settling is the better option, and even though settling is a rampant phenomenon, talking about it in a positive light makes people profoundly uncomfortable. Whenever I make the case for settling, people look at me with creased brows of disapproval or frowns of disappointment, the way a child might look at an older sibling who just informed her that Jerry's Kids aren't going to walk, even if you send them money. It's not only politically incorrect to get behind settling, it's downright un-American. Our culture tells us to keep our eyes on the prize (while our mothers, who know better, tell us not to be so picky), and the theme of holding out for true love (whatever that is—look at the divorce rate) permeates our collective mentality. Even situation comedies, starting in the 1970s with The Mary Tyler Moore Show and going all the way to Friends, feature endearing single women in the dating trenches, and there's supposed to be something romantic and even heroic about their search for true love. Of course, the crucial difference is that, whereas the earlier series begins after Mary has been jilted by her fiancé, the more modern-day Friends opens as Rachel Green leaves her nice-guy orthodontist fiancé at the altar simply because she isn't feeling it. But either way, in episode after episode, as both women continue to be unlucky in love, settling starts to look pretty darn appealing. Mary is supposed to be contentedly independent and fulfilled by her newsroom family, but in fact her life seems lonely. Are we to assume that at the end of the series, Mary, by then in her late 30s, found her soul mate after the lights in the newsroom went out and her work family was disbanded? If her experience was anything like mine or that of my single friends, it's unlikely. And while Rachel and her supposed soul mate, Ross, finally get together (for the umpteenth time) in the finale of Friends, do we feel confident that she'll be happier with Ross than she would have been had she settled down with Barry, the orthodontist, 10 years earlier? She and Ross have passion but have never had long-term stability, and the fireworks she experiences with him but not with Barry might actually turn out to be a liability, given how many times their relationship has already gone up in flames. It's equally questionable whether Sex and the City's Carrie Bradshaw, who cheated on her kindhearted and generous boyfriend, Aidan, only to end up with the more exciting but self-absorbed Mr. Big, will be better off in the framework of marriage and family. (Some time after the breakup, when Carrie ran into Aidan on the street, he was carrying his infant in a Baby Björn. Can anyone imagine Mr. Big walking around with a Björn?)
Views: 208220 Shari Wing
Mod-01 Lec-16 Lecture-16-Extraction Aluminium (Contd...1)
 
55:08
Non-ferrous Extractive Metallurgy by Prof.H.S. Ray,Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 2951 nptelhrd
L. RON HUBBARD - WikiVidi Documentary
 
01:53:33
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard , better known as L. Ron Hubbard and often referred to by his initials, LRH, was an American author and the founder of the Church of Scientology. After establishing a career as a writer, becoming best known for his science fiction and fantasy stories, he developed a system called Dianetics which was first expounded in book form in May 1950. He subsequently developed his ideas into a wide-ranging set of doctrines and practices as part of a new religious movement that he called Scientology. His writings became the guiding texts for the Church of Scientology and a number of affiliated organizations that address such diverse topics as business administration, literacy and drug rehabilitation. The Church's dissemination of these materials led to Hubbard being listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the most translated and published author in the world. The Guinness World Record for the most audio books published for one author is also held by Hubbard. In 20... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:05:29: Early life 00:14:09: University and explorations 00:20:08: Early literary career and Alaskan expedition 00:30:48: Military career 00:39:29: Occult involvement in Pasadena 00:44:43: Origins of Dianetics 00:51:48: From Dianetics to Scientology 01:02:11: Rise of Scientology 01:13:27: Controversies and crises 01:22:14: Commodore of the Sea Org 01:28:41: Life in hiding 01:37:25: Death and legacy 01:47:58: Biographies ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Ron_Hubbard
House Judiciary Finance and Civil Law Division  3/28/19
 
02:50:00
00:53 - HF557 (Mann) Physician-patient relationship protected by prohibiting non-compete agreements. 45:00 - HF2000 (Lee) Contract and certificate of compliance requirements changed. 52:43 - HF1603 (Dehn) Election and campaign finance; various policy and technical changes made, automatic voter registration provided, voting rights of persons with felony convictions restored, early voting provided, automatic absentee ballot delivery authorized, ranked-choice voting authorized, National Popular Vote Interstate Compact adopted, campaign finance reporting requirements modified for Hennepin County elections and political subdivisions, expressly advocating definition modified, reporting of electioneering communications required, redistricting commission established, and money appropriated. - This is the Omnibus Elections bill we are hearing the bill for limited purposes. - The scope of our jurisdiction involves:. --- the data practices provisions: lines 2.6-2.9; 8.6-8.7; 42.31-43.4 and 76.28-76.29, and. --- the penalty provisions: lines 56.20-57.16; 67.17-68.2; 69.10-69.15. 1:12:18 - HF2367 (Dehn) Certifying entities to timely process visa certification documents. 1:28:07 - HF2709 (Mariani) Peace officer training reimbursement funding provided, and money appropriated. 2:04:41 - HF2681 (Long) Energy usage data maintained by utilities access rights provided. The Division recessed. Runs 2 hour, 50 minutes. No video available of the reconvening. * Connect with House Public Information Services: www.house.mn/hinfo/hinfo.asp * Find Minnesota House of Representatives news and updates at Session Daily: www.house.mn/sessiondaily/ *Connect with the Minnesota House of Representatives: www.house.mn
Views: 57 MNHouseInfo
12/7/18 Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC) Meeting (Day 2)
 
05:24:41
12/7/18 Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC) Meeting (Day 2) 8:30AM - 2PM
Views: 177 uscensusbureau
Platinum group
 
07:34
The platinum-group metals) are six metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table. These elements are all transition metals, lying in the d-block. The six platinum-group metals are ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum. They have similar physical and chemical properties, and tend to occur together in the same mineral deposits. However they can be further subdivided into the iridium-group platinum-group elements and the palladium-group platinum-group elements based on their behaviour in geological systems. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 533 Audiopedia
Geological Sciences | Wikipedia audio article
 
43:33
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology 00:01:44 1 Geologic materials 00:02:06 1.1 Rock 00:03:02 1.1.1 Tests 00:04:28 1.2 Unlithified material 00:04:56 1.2.1 Magma and lava 00:05:26 2 Whole-Earth structure 00:05:36 2.1 Plate tectonics 00:07:41 2.2 Earth structure 00:09:14 3 Geologic time 00:09:54 3.1 Timescale of the Earth 00:10:28 3.2 Important milestones on Earth 00:12:00 3.3 Timescale of the Moon 00:12:12 3.4 Timescale of Mars 00:12:25 4 Dating methods 00:12:35 4.1 Relative dating 00:16:09 4.2 Absolute dating 00:18:33 5 Geological development of an area 00:24:39 6 Methods of geology 00:25:33 6.1 Field methods 00:27:48 6.2 Petrology 00:29:17 6.3 Structural geology 00:31:06 6.4 Stratigraphy 00:32:29 7 Planetary geology 00:33:52 8 Applied geology 00:34:01 8.1 Economic geology 00:34:36 8.1.1 Mining geology 00:35:07 8.1.2 Petroleum geology 00:35:38 8.2 Engineering geology 00:36:22 8.3 Hydrology and environmental issues 00:37:22 8.4 Natural hazards 00:37:49 9 History of geology 00:43:18 10 Fields or related disciplines Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9587181335487691 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse")) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
The Crystalline Silica Enigma and Other Stories - Tales of a Medical Geologist
 
55:00
Dr. David Damby USGS California Volcano Observatory October 25, 2016
Graphite
 
28:45
Graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω , "to draw/write", for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead . Unlike diamond , graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 401 encyclopediacc
Chai Jing's Review: Under The Dome - Investigating China’s Smog
 
01:43:56
Chai Jing explains in detail the Air Pollution in China and the effects of it on our health
Views: 167 Jordan Tse
Tripura | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:53
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Tripura Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Tripura () is a state in Northeast India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 (4,051 sq mi) and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. The area of modern 'Tripura' was ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty. It was the independent princely state of the Tripuri Kingdom under the protectorate of the British Empire which was known as Hill Tippera while the area annexed and ruled directly by British India was known as Tippera District (present Comilla District). The independent Tripuri Kingdom (or Hill Tippera) joined the newly independent India in 1949. Ethnic strife between the indigenous Tripuri people and the migrant Bengali population due to large influx of Bengali Hindu refugees and settlers from Bangladesh led to tension and scattered violence since its integration into the country of India, but the establishment of an autonomous tribal administrative agency and other strategies have led to peace. Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country. Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhan and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys; Agartala, the capital, is located on a plain to the west. The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura, which has a limited infrastructure. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product. According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions, weddings and festivities; the use of locally crafted musical instruments and clothes; and the worship of regional deities. The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions. The Great Chinmoy in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king.
Views: 100 wikipedia tts
Mica
 
22:07
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having close to perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition. The nearly perfect cleavage, which is the most prominent characteristic of mica, is explained by the hexagonal sheet-like arrangement of its atoms. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 291 encyclopediacc
History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent | Wikipedia audio article
 
37:36
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent began prior to the 3rd millennium BCE and continued well into the British Raj. Metals and related concepts were mentioned in various early Vedic age texts. The Rigveda already uses the Sanskrit term Ayas (metal). The Indian cultural and commercial contacts with the Near East and the Greco-Roman world enabled an exchange of metallurgic sciences. With the advent of the Mughals, India's Mughal Empire (established: April 21, 1526—ended: September 21, 1857) further improved the established tradition of metallurgy and metal working in India.The imperial policies of the British Raj led to stagnation of metallurgy in India as the British regulated mining and metallurgy—used in India previously by its rulers to build armies and resist England during various wars.
Views: 56 wikipedia tts
Lithium | Wikipedia audio article
 
44:47
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium 00:02:01 1 Properties 00:02:10 1.1 Atomic and physical 00:04:39 1.2 Chemistry and compounds 00:07:20 1.2.1 Organic chemistry 00:08:06 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:12 2 Occurrence 00:11:21 2.1 Astronomical 00:13:25 2.2 Terrestrial 00:17:00 2.3 Biological 00:17:40 3 History 00:22:23 4 Production 00:23:17 4.1 Reserves 00:27:47 4.2 Pricing 00:28:38 4.3 Extraction 00:29:29 4.4 Investment 00:29:59 5 Applications 00:30:08 5.1 Ceramics and glass 00:30:46 5.2 Electrical and electronics 00:31:39 5.3 Lubricating greases 00:32:06 5.4 Metallurgy 00:33:04 5.5 Silicon nano-welding 00:33:23 5.6 Other chemical and industrial uses 00:33:33 5.6.1 Pyrotechnics 00:33:49 5.6.2 Air purification 00:34:56 5.6.3 Optics 00:36:05 5.6.4 Organic and polymer chemistry 00:37:02 5.6.5 Military applications 00:37:49 5.7 Nuclear 00:41:06 5.8 Medicine 00:41:42 6 Biological role 00:42:45 7 Precautions 00:43:22 7.1 Regulation 00:44:21 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, translit. lithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production. Lithium is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. Lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder in humans.
Views: 19 wikipedia tts
Wetland | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:07:12
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Wetland 00:01:54 1 Definitions 00:03:07 1.1 Technical definitions 00:03:52 1.1.1 Ramsar Convention definition 00:04:40 1.1.2 Regional definitions 00:06:38 2 Ecology 00:07:10 3 Characteristics 00:07:29 4 Hydrology 00:09:16 4.1 Role of salinity 00:09:43 4.2 Soil 00:10:39 4.3 Biota 00:11:23 4.3.1 Flora 00:12:33 4.3.2 Fauna 00:14:36 4.3.3 Algae 00:15:34 5 Climates 00:15:43 5.1 Temperature 00:16:53 5.2 Precipitation 00:17:51 6 Uses of wetlands 00:19:28 6.1 Water storage (flood control) 00:22:12 6.2 Groundwater replenishment 00:24:12 6.3 Shoreline stabilization and storm protection 00:25:45 6.4 Water purification 00:30:12 6.5 Constructed wetlands 00:31:38 6.6 Reservoirs of biodiversity 00:36:07 6.7 Wetland products and productivity 00:40:40 6.8 Additional functions and uses of wetlands 00:41:27 7 Wetlands and climate change 00:43:42 7.1 Peatswamps in Southeast Asia 00:44:57 8 Wetland Disturbance 00:46:53 9 Conservation 00:47:35 9.1 Balancing wetland conservation with the needs of people 00:49:15 9.2 Ramsar Convention 00:50:27 10 Valuation 00:51:25 10.1 Assessment 00:54:25 10.2 Inventory 00:55:44 10.3 Monitoring 00:58:55 11 Restoration 01:00:07 11.1 Levels of restoration 01:02:55 11.2 Important considerations 01:03:31 11.3 Legislation 01:03:54 12 List of wetland types 01:06:39 13 Wetland names 01:06:51 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, and support of plants and animals. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, and the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for rapidly assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, and general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation partly by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.Wetlands occur naturally on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh, bog, and fen; sub-types include mangrove forest, carr, pocosin, floodplains, mire, vernal pool, sink, and many others. Many peatlands are wetlands. The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be tidal (inundated by tides) or non-tidal. The largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth.Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.
Views: 53 wikipedia tts
Introduction to Dictionary Skills
 
07:05
A charming introduction to first dictionary skills, to help every child understand how to use dictionaries to find the words they need, and enrich their language.
Views: 331486 Oxford Education
2014 Killian Lecture: Stephen J. Lippard, "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs"
 
01:15:55
Lecture title: "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs" Stephen Lippard, the Arthur Amos Noyes professor in the Department of Chemistry, was MIT’s James R. Killian Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2013–2014. Professor Lippard has spent his career studying the role of inorganic molecules, especially metal ions and their complexes, in critical processes of biological systems. He has made pioneering contributions in understanding the mechanism of the cancer drug cisplatin and in designing new variants to combat drug resistance and side effects. Tuesday, April 1, 2014 Huntington Hall (10-250)
What Physicists Do - September 24, 2018 - Dr. Yiyang Li
 
01:07:10
Speaker: Dr. Yiyang Li STORING ENERGY AND INFORMATION USING ELECTROCHEMICAL ION INSERTION Dr. Yiyang Li of Sandia National Laboratories will describe how electrochemical ion insertion is used to store energy in lithium-ion batteries and store information for low-power neuromorphic computation, meeting our society's goals in energy storage and low-power computing.
Views: 203 CSUSonoma
History of science | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:33:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of science Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The History of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship.) Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science. The English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, investigators of nature called themselves "natural philosophers". While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example by Thales and Aristotle), and scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs. Some more recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any scientific progress, but only to the illusion of progress.
Views: 43 wikipedia tts
Mod-01 Lec-36 Energy and Environment Related Issues in Nonferrous Metals Production (Contd...4)
 
53:45
Non-ferrous Extractive Metallurgy by Prof.H.S. Ray,Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 616 nptelhrd
APNIC44 - Technical Operations 1
 
01:36:17
View the slides from this session: https://conference.apnic.net/44/program/schedule/#/day/6/technical-operations-i View other sessions at APNIC 44: https://conference.apnic.net/44/program/schedule
Views: 331 APNIC
Natural scientist | Wikipedia audio article
 
37:25
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_science 00:02:07 1 Criteria 00:02:41 2 Branches of natural science 00:02:51 2.1 Biology 00:04:36 2.2 Chemistry 00:06:14 2.3 Physics 00:07:59 2.4 Astronomy 00:09:30 2.5 Earth science 00:10:39 2.5.1 Atmospheric sciences 00:11:26 2.5.2 Oceanography 00:12:11 3 Interdisciplinary studies 00:14:10 3.1 Materials science 00:16:14 4 History 00:19:49 4.1 Aristotelian natural philosophy (400 BC–1100 AD) 00:22:48 4.2 Medieval natural philosophy (1100–1600) 00:28:06 4.3 Newton and the scientific revolution (1600–1800) 00:35:23 4.4 19th-century developments (1800–1900) 00:36:02 4.5 Modern natural science (1900–present) 00:37:00 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9235927011007062 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields). In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature". The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy, usually traced to ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Geological science | Wikipedia audio article
 
55:06
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology 00:02:14 1 Geologic materials 00:02:39 1.1 Rock 00:03:49 1.1.1 Tests 00:05:38 1.2 Unlithified material 00:06:12 1.2.1 Magma and lava 00:06:48 2 Whole-Earth structure 00:06:58 2.1 Plate tectonics 00:09:38 2.2 Earth structure 00:11:35 3 Geologic time 00:12:25 3.1 Timescale of the Earth 00:13:07 3.2 Important milestones on Earth 00:15:06 3.3 Timescale of the Moon 00:15:20 3.4 Timescale of Mars 00:15:34 4 Dating methods 00:15:44 4.1 Relative dating 00:20:19 4.2 Absolute dating 00:23:23 5 Geological development of an area 00:31:13 6 Methods of geology 00:32:20 6.1 Field methods 00:35:13 6.2 Petrology 00:37:05 6.3 Structural geology 00:39:24 6.4 Stratigraphy 00:41:10 7 Planetary geology 00:42:53 8 Applied geology 00:43:03 8.1 Economic geology 00:43:46 8.1.1 Mining geology 00:44:24 8.1.2 Petroleum geology 00:45:01 8.2 Engineering geology 00:45:56 8.3 Hydrology and environmental issues 00:47:13 8.4 Natural hazards 00:47:45 9 History of geology 00:54:49 10 Fields or related disciplines Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7992657909667888 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse")) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Portugal | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:22:43
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Portugal 00:03:51 1 Etymology 00:05:32 2 History 00:05:41 2.1 Prehistory 00:09:20 2.2 Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia 00:12:01 2.3 Germanic kingdoms: Suebi and Visigoths 00:17:14 2.4 Islamic period and the Reconquista 00:19:40 2.5 County of Portucale 00:22:59 2.6 Afonsine era 00:25:56 2.7 Joanine era and Age of Discoveries 00:29:38 2.8 Iberian Union, Restoration and early Brigantine era 00:32:45 2.9 Pombaline era and Enlightenment 00:37:45 2.10 Napoleonic era 00:40:58 2.11 Constitutional monarchy 00:44:36 2.12 First Republic and Estado Novo 00:48:01 2.13 Carnation Revolution and European integration 00:53:19 3 Geography 00:55:24 3.1 Climate 01:00:54 3.2 Biodiversity 01:05:20 4 Government and administration 01:07:04 4.1 Presidency of the Republic 01:08:05 4.2 Government 01:09:19 4.3 Parliament 01:10:14 4.4 Law and drug policy 01:12:20 4.5 LGBT+ rights in Portugal 01:13:17 4.6 Law enforcement 01:13:50 4.7 Administrative divisions 01:15:41 4.8 Foreign relations 01:18:35 4.9 Military 01:21:32 4.10 Government finance 01:25:01 5 Economy 01:30:24 5.1 Primary sector 01:34:26 5.2 Secondary sector 01:35:33 5.3 Tertiary sector 01:38:05 5.4 Quaternary sector 01:41:35 5.5 Transport 01:45:56 5.6 Energy 01:48:05 6 Demographics 01:53:14 6.1 Urbanization 01:53:23 6.2 Metropolitan areas and Functional Urban Area (FUA) 01:53:40 6.3 Immigration 01:55:59 6.4 Religion 01:58:04 6.5 Languages 02:00:04 6.6 Education 02:03:58 6.7 Health 02:07:32 7 Culture 02:08:28 7.1 Architecture 02:09:14 7.2 Cinema 02:09:58 7.3 Literature 02:11:09 7.4 Cuisine 02:13:25 7.5 Music 02:16:46 7.6 Visual arts 02:18:11 7.7 Sport 02:22:24 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]), is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The Pre-Celts, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Despite attempts at independence since its foundation as a county in 868, only after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal. He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such, by neighbouring kingdoms, on the Treaty of Zamora, in 1143.In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (Cabo da Boa Esperança) (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the Industrial Revolution, the Seven Years' War, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the ind ...
Views: 112 wikipedia tts
Solubility | Wikipedia audio article
 
34:23
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Solubility 00:02:32 1 IUPAC definition 00:03:05 2 Qualifiers used to describe extent of solubility 00:04:01 3 Molecular view 00:05:42 4 Factors affecting solubility 00:08:01 4.1 Temperature 00:10:33 4.2 Pressure 00:12:08 5 Solubility of gases 00:14:30 6 Polarity 00:16:22 7 Rate of dissolution 00:18:57 8 Quantification of solubility 00:21:07 9 Applications 00:23:04 9.1 Differential solubility 00:24:01 10 Solubility of ionic compounds in water 00:25:21 11 Solubility of organic compounds 00:25:47 12 Solid solution 00:26:12 13 Incongruent dissolution 00:26:23 14 Solubility prediction 00:26:59 15 See also 00:27:58 16 References 00:29:07 17 External links 00:33:45 undefined Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of other chemicals (including changes to the pH) of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may also speak of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas (see vapor–liquid equilibrium instead). Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable. Metastability of crystals can also lead to apparent differences in the amount of a chemical that dissolves depending on its crystalline form or particle size. A supersaturated solution generally crystallises when 'seed' crystals are introduced and rapid equilibration occurs. Phenylsalicylate is one such simple observable substance when fully melted and then cooled below its fusion point. Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to 'dissolve' a substance, because the solution might also occur because of a chemical reaction. For example, zinc 'dissolves' (with effervescence) in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction. The zinc ions are soluble in the acid. The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution, which is how fast it dissolves. The smaller a particle is, the faster it dissolves although there are many factors to add to this generalization. Crucially solubility applies to all areas of chemistry, geochemistry, inorganic, physical, organic and biochemistry. In all cases it will depend on the physical conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration) and the enthalpy and entropy directly relating to the solvents and solutes concerned. By far the most common solvent in chemistry is water which is a solvent for most ionic compounds as well as a wide range of organic substances. This is a crucial factor in acidity/alkalinity and much environmental and geochemical work.
Views: 13 wikipedia tts
Petroleum
 
52:20
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from Latin petra rock(see petrous) + Latin: oleum oil (see oil (n.)). ) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to intense heat and pressure. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 90 million barrels each day. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 467 Audiopedia
Colorado | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:15:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Colorado Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Colorado ( (listen), other variants) is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,607,154 on July 1, 2017, an increase of 11.49% since the 2010 United States Census.The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, and touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners. Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers, and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, and is one of the Mountain States. Denver is the capital and most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is occasionally used.Unlike its neighbors to the north, west and east, Colorado has been recognized as a strongly socially liberal state. Same-sex marriage in Colorado has been legal since 2014, and it was the second state in the U.S. (after Washington) to legalize recreational cannabis. The state is known for its progressive views on abortion and assisted suicide; Coloradans rejected a 2008 referendum that would have criminalized abortion, and approved a measure in 2016 that legalized assisted suicide in the state, and remains one of six states (along with the District of Columbia) to have legalized assisted suicide. In 2018, Colorado became the first state in the United States to elect an openly gay governor, Jared Polis, in the 2018 gubernatorial election.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Antarctica | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:47
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Antarctica Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Antarctica (UK: or , US: (listen)) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 in) along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C (−135.8 °F) as measured from space), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources, and isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
Dr. Carl Larsson - Impact of Radiation Release - Australian Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission
 
01:35:50
In 2015 Dr. Carl-Magnus Larsson testified before Australia's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission on the impact of radiation & radioactive material on human health and the environment. Source: http://nuclearrc.sa.gov.au/videos/effects-and-threats-of-radiation-27102015-1pm/ Transcript (all 3 speakers, Larsson is at end): http://nuclearrc.sa.gov.au/app/uploads/mp/files/videos/files/151027-topic-11-day-1-transcript-full-v2.47d90eef664b63b03f6592b017045bc9.pdf The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission will provide all interested persons with an opportunity to provide information and evidence that will help guide the Royal Commission in its decision making and formulation of the final report. This video's audio channel has been boosted 18dB from the original Royal Commission posting. In my own experience very quiet audio can make a video impossible to consume on portable devices, and also a bit dangerous if headphone volume is cranked.
Views: 371 Gordon McDowell
History of sciences | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:40:27
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science 00:02:11 1 Early cultures 00:03:43 1.1 Ancient Near East 00:08:30 1.2 Egypt 00:10:11 1.3 Greco-Roman world 00:18:43 1.4 India 00:24:33 1.5 China 00:32:25 2 Post-classical science 00:32:49 2.1 Byzantine Empire 00:35:24 2.2 Islamic world 00:40:43 2.3 Western Europe 00:46:18 3 Impact of science in Europe 00:48:58 3.1 Age of Enlightenment 00:50:29 3.2 Romanticism in science 00:51:18 4 Modern science 00:52:01 4.1 Natural sciences 00:52:11 4.1.1 Physics 00:56:52 4.1.2 Chemistry 00:59:50 4.1.3 Geology 01:04:48 4.1.4 Astronomy 01:06:51 4.1.5 Biology and medicine 01:10:25 4.1.6 Ecology 01:11:26 4.2 Social sciences 01:11:51 4.2.1 Political science 01:16:50 4.2.2 Linguistics 01:18:14 4.2.3 Economics 01:22:07 4.2.4 Psychology 01:24:26 4.2.5 Sociology 01:27:23 4.2.6 Anthropology 01:29:45 4.3 Emerging disciplines 01:32:00 5 Academic study 01:33:59 5.1 Theories and sociology of the history of science 01:38:43 5.2 Plight of many scientific innovators Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8215223805703276 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences (the history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship). Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real-world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science. The English word scientist is relatively recent—first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, investigators of nature called themselves "natural philosophers". While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales and Aristotle), and the scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.From the 18th through the late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs. More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems within a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray the history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any actual scientific progress but only to the illusion that it has occurred.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts