What is QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
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Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. Currently used popular public-key encryption and signature schemes (e.g., RSA and ElGamal) can be broken by quantum adversaries. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.e. non-quantum) communication (see below for examples). For example, it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state and the very act of reading data encoded in a quantum state changes the state. This is used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution.
History:
Quantum cryptography uses Heisenberg's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, and the No-cloning theorem first articulated by Wootters and Zurek and Dieks in 1982. Werner Heisenberg discovered one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: "At the instant at which the position of the electron is known, its momentum therefore can be known only up to magnitudes which correspond to that discontinuous change; thus, the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known, and conversely” (Heisenberg, 1927: 174–5). This simply means that observation of quanta changes its behavior. By measuring the velocity of quanta we would affect it, and thereby change its position; if we want to find a quant's position, we are forced to change its velocity. Therefore, we cannot measure a quantum system's characteristics without changing it (Clark, n.d.) and we cannot record all characteristics of a quantum system before those characteristics are measured. The No-cloning theorem demonstrates that it is impossible to create a copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state. This makes unobserved eavesdropping impossible because it will be quickly detected, thus greatly improving assurance that the communicated data remains private.
Quantum cryptography was proposed first by Stephen Wiesner, then at Columbia University in New York, who, in the early 1970s, introduced the concept of quantum conjugate coding. His seminal paper titled "Conjugate Coding" was rejected by IEEE Information Theory Society, but was eventually published in 1983 in SIGACT News (15:1 pp. 78–88, 1983). In this paper he showed how to store or transmit two messages by encoding them in two "conjugate observables", such as linear and circular polarization of light, so that either, but not both, of which may be received and decoded. He illustrated his idea with a design of unforgeable bank notes. In 1984, building upon this work, Charles H. Bennett, of the IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and Gilles Brassard, of the Université de Montréal, proposed a method for secure communication based on Wiesner's "conjugate observables", which is now called BB84. In 1991 Artur Ekert developed a different approach to quantum key distribution based on peculiar quantum correlations known as quantum entanglement.
Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called Alice and Bob) have been proposed in Kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol. In principle, this method can be used for continuous, unbreakable encryption of data if single photons are used. The basic polarization rotation scheme has been implemented.
The BB84 method is at the basis of quantum key distribution methods. Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include MagiQ Technologies, Inc. (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), ID Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland), QuintessenceLabs (Canberra, Australia) and SeQureNet (Paris, France).

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The Audiopedia

Quantum Cryptography explained simply. Regular encryption is breakable, but not quantum cryptography. Today we'll look at the simplest case of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution. It uses the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle to prevent eavesdroppers from cracking the code.
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Up and Atom

This episode is brought to you by Squarespace: http://www.squarespace.com/physicsgirl
With recent high-profile security decryption cases, encryption is more important than ever. Much of your browser usage and your smartphone data is encrypted. But what does that process actually entail? And when computers get smarter and faster due to advances in quantum physics, how will encryption keep up?
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Physics Girl

One of the main reason that i am creating these videos are due to the problems i faced at the time of making presentation, so take the required info from this and make your presentation an informational one.
Till now i got so many open source stuff so felt of offering the world so here are the efforts.
Thank you
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Keep Going

Did it for my data mining class presentation.
Research paper is available at:
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johnnyg88

What is POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
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Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. This is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently large quantum computer. The problem with the currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers are too small to attack any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the PQCrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on Quantum Safe Cryptography hosted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Institute for Quantum Computing.
In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. While the quantum Grover's algorithm does speed up attacks against symmetric ciphers, doubling the key size can effectively block these attacks. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography.

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The Audiopedia

Where are the limits of human technology? And can we somehow avoid them? This is where quantum computers become very interesting.
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Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human Technology
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Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell

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MhdAsim

Namaskaar Dosto, is video mein maine aapse Quantum Computers ke baare mein baat ki hai, waise toh aap sabhi Computers use karte hai, aur aapka mobile phone bhi ek computer hi hai, aapne super computers ke baare mein bhi suna hoga, magar kya aapne kabhi quantum computers ke baare mein suna hai? Quantum Computers aur Quantum Computing aane waale time mein nayi computing ko leke aayega, aur yeh hamari bahut hi jyada help karega alag alag complex calculations karne mein. aap yeh video dekhiye aur aap Quantum Computing ke baare mein sab kuch jaan jayenge. Mujhe umeed hai ki quantum computing ka yeh video aapko jarur pasand aayega.
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Technical Guruji

This video explain what is visual criptography with an example.
The analyzed phases are:
1) How to generate the key
2) Encryption of the choosen image with the key
3) Visual decryption: overlapping the key with the encrypted image
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Ali One Informatica

For more on spin, check out: http://youtu.be/v1_-LsQLwkA
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A quantum computer works in a totally different way from a classical computer. Quantum bits or 'qubits' can exist in a superposition state of both zero and one simultaneously. This means that a set of two qubits can be in a superposition of four states, which therefore require four numbers to uniquely identify the state. So the amount of information stored in N qubits is two to the power of N classical bits.
Thank you to Andrea Morello and UNSW. For more info, check out: http://bit.ly/17wZ7lt

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Veritasium

Learn how quantum communication provides security that is guaranteed by the laws of nature.
Take this course free on edX: https://www.edx.org/course/quantum-cryptography-caltechx-delftx-qucryptox#!
ABOUT THIS COURSE
How can you tell a secret when everyone is able to listen in? In this course, you will learn how to use quantum effects, such as quantum entanglement and uncertainty, to implement cryptographic tasks with levels of security that are impossible to achieve classically.
This interdisciplinary course is an introduction to the exciting field of quantum cryptography, developed in collaboration between QuTech at Delft University of Technology and the California Institute of Technology.
By the end of the course you will:
- Be armed with a fundamental toolbox for understanding, designing and analyzing quantum protocols.
- Understand quantum key distribution protocols.
- Understand how untrusted quantum devices can be tested.
- Be familiar with modern quantum cryptography – beyond quantum key distribution.
This course assumes a solid knowledge of linear algebra and probability at the level of an advanced undergraduate. Basic knowledge of elementary quantum information (qubits and simple measurements) is also assumed, but if you are completely new to quantum information additional videos are provided for you to fill in any gaps.
WHAT YOU'LL LEARN
- Fundamental ideas of quantum cryptography
- Cryptographic concepts and tools: security definitions, the min-entropy, privacy amplification
- Protocols and proofs of security for quantum key distribution
- The basics of device-independent quantum cryptography
- Modern quantum cryptographic tasks and protocols

Views: 9998
edX

This video explains what is quantum entanglement and how does it work. Enjoy!

Views: 8510
Daniel Liu

A simple explanation of how prime numbers are used in Public Key Cryptography from ABC1 science program Catalyst

Views: 64444
Simon Pampena

Hello Dosto
Aaj hum baat karenge cryptography ke bare me ki ye kya hota hai aur iska itemaal kaise aur kaha hota hai. iska sambandh kisi bhi data ya message ko safely pohchane se hota hai aur uski security badhayi jati hai taaki bich me koi an-adhikarik tarike se usko access na kar paye. aasha karta hoo apko ye video pasand ayegi agar aapko ye video achhi lage to isse like kare aur apne dosto ke sath share kare aur abhi tak aapne mera channel subscribe nahi kia hai to jarur is channel ko subscribe kare.
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Technical Sagar

Researchers at the University of Calgary and SAIT Polytechnic demonstrate sending information between the two institutions using unbreakable codes derived using quantum physics. This is a significant milestone in Canada and paves the way for commercial applications for producing highly secure information networks.

Views: 9253
UofCVideos

Video: What is a Quantum Internet?
Do you want to learn more about Quantum Computers and the Quantum Internet? View the complete course at: https://www.edx.org/course/quantum-internet-quantum-computers-how-delftx-qtm1x
More courses at http://qutech.nl/edu/

Views: 690
QuTech Academy

Namaskaar Dosto, is video mein maine aapko encryption ke baare mein bataya hai, aap sabhi ne computer aur internet use karte time Encryption aur decryption ke baare mein jarur suna hoga, usme aapko SSL encrytpion TSL Encryption, Public Key encryption, private key encryption wagereh ke baare mein bhi suna hoga, aur abhi recently whatsapp ne bhi end to end encryption launch kiya hai, toh aise mein hamare man mein bahut se sawaal hai ki aakhir yeh encryption hota kya hai? Encryption hum hamari email pe bhi use karte hai, aur hum online banking karte time bhi encryption ka use karte hai. Mujhe umeed hai ki yeh video dekhne ke baad aap encryption aur decryption ke baare mein sab kuch jaan jayenge, aur saath hi saath public key encryption ke baare mein bhi samajh jayenge. aur aap aaraam se whatsapp ke encryption feature ko bhi use kar payenge.
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Technical Guruji

Views: 723
George Parisinos

Topics covered: Cryptography, OTP and QKD, physical qubits, quantum coin flipping, quantum cloning circuit, Bell state circuit, quantum teleportation circuit.

Views: 1788
Quantum Computing

Sarah Croke, a postdoctoral fellow at Waterloo's Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, lectures at the Institute for Quantum Computing on the physics behind the BB84 Protocol in quantum key distribution. The lecture was part of the Quantum Cryptography School for Young Students (QCSYS) 2011.
For information on attending QCSYS 2012, visit http://iqc.uwaterloo.ca/conferences/qcsys2012/qcsys-home
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Views: 9045
Institute for Quantum Computing

What if all "secured" websites could no longer be trusted to keep your data safe? The impact on eCommerce, banking, and other websites we use every day would be devastating. Learn about Quantum Computing, and why this is a very real risk not too far away. Download the guide to learn more https://web.securityinnovation.com/what-is-post-quantum-cryptography.

Views: 6160
Security Innovation

UCI Chem 131A Quantum Principles (Winter 2014)
Lec 04. Quantum Principles -- Complementarity, Quantum Encryption, Schrodinger Equation --
View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131a_quantum_principles.html
Instructor: A.J. Shaka, Ph.D
License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
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This course provides an introduction to quantum mechanics and principles of quantum chemistry with applications to nuclear motions and the electronic structure of the hydrogen atom. It also examines the Schrödinger equation and study how it describes the behavior of very light particles, the quantum description of rotating and vibrating molecules is compared to the classical description, and the quantum description of the electronic structure of atoms is studied.
Quantum Principles (Chem 131A) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html
This video is part of a 28-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Quantum Principles" taught at UC Irvine by A.J. Shaka, Ph.D.
Recorded on January 17, 2014.
Index of Topics:
0:00:20 Localized Wavfunctions
0:11:30 Fourier Series
0:13:21 Quantum cryptography
0:28:32 Time Evolution
0:47:22 A Free Particle
Required attribution: Shaka, A.J. Quantum Principles 131A (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131a_quantum_principles.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US).

Views: 3566
UCI Open

Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce...
Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 497752
itfreetraining

In this video I explain the fundamental concepts of cryptography. Encryption, decryption, plaintext, cipher text, and keys.
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Learn Math Tutorials

Quantum computers are a fundamentally different sort of computer that take advantage of aspects of quantum physics to solve certain sorts of problems dramatically faster than conventional computers can. While the Quantum Computers will be very useful in various ways, they can create problems in some ways. Specifically, if large quantum computers can be built then they may be able to break the asymmetric cryptographic primitives that are currently used in TLS, the security protocol behind HTTPS.
Quantum computers exist today but, for the moment, they are small and experimental, containing only a handful of quantum bits. It's not even certain that large machines will ever be built, although Google, IBM, Microsoft, Intel and others are working on it. Adiabatic quantum computers, like the D-Wave computer that Google operates with NASA, can have large numbers of quantum bits, but currently solve fundamentally different problems.
However, a hypothetical, future quantum computer would be able to retrospectively decrypt any internet communication that was recorded today, and many types of information need to remain confidential for decades. Thus even the possibility of a future quantum computer is something that we should be thinking about today.
The study of cryptographic primitives that remain secure even against quantum computers is called “post-quantum cryptography”. Google has announced an experiment in Chrome where a small fraction of connections between desktop Chrome and Google's servers will use a post-quantum key-exchange algorithm in addition to the elliptic-curve key-exchange algorithm that would typically be used. By adding a post-quantum algorithm on top of the existing one, Google is able to experiment without affecting user security. The post-quantum algorithm might turn out to be breakable even with today's computers, in which case the elliptic-curve algorithm will still provide the best security that today’s technology can offer. Alternatively, if the post-quantum algorithm turns out to be secure then it'll protect the connection even against a future, quantum computer.
Google's aims with this experiment are to highlight an area of research that it believes to be important and to gain real-world experience with the larger data structures that post-quantum algorithms will likely require. There are many post-quantum algorithms available. Google selected a post-quantum algorithm named "New Hope” for this experiment.
News Source: https://security.googleblog.com/2016/07/experimenting-with-post-quantum.html
Related Video:
IBM Quantum Experience allows anyone to access IBM's Quantum Computer over the Web https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VPwtlOwfGE
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Views: 504
Rajamanickam Antonimuthu

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What is Cryptography In Hindi II Cryptography Details In Hindi II Cryptography Explained In Hindi
Hello Friends welcome to my channel Hindi Mein Jaankari...HMJ
Dosto aaj ke is video mein hum baat karenge what is cryptography dosto agar aap internet user hain to aapne kabhi na kabhi cryptography ke baare mein jarur suna hoga agar nahin to is video ko pura dekhe dosto aaj ke is video mein aapko cryptography details in hindi mein batayenge aur yeh kya kaam karta hai aur cryptography ke kya fayade hain yeh pura chapter cryptography explained in hindi mein karenge.
Dosto jab bhi aap koi email ya message kisi ko bhejte hain yar phir aapka jo data hai aap jiske saath share karna chahte aur aap chahte ki aapta data private rahe aur koi bhi us data ko server aur aapke beech se na chura sake to dosto is cryptography kahte hain dosto ismein jo bhi aapka data hota use encrypt kar dia jaata hai aur jiske saath aap data ko share karte hai woh us data ko decrypt karta hai aur use read kar leta hai dosto jitni bhi website hain jine address baar mein https likha aata hai green colour mein woh ssl protect websites hote hain aapke data ko aapke information ko encrypt kar ke server mein store karti hain taki aapki information ko koi na chura sake.
Dosto what is cryptography ya cryptography details in hindi ke baare mein aapko is video mein bahut kuch pata chalega dosto cryptography ko 2 parts mein devide kia hai symetric cryptography aur asymetric cryptography.
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Views: 19454
Hindi Mein Jaankari

Prof. Shoucheng Zhang discusses three pillars of information technology: quantum computing, AI and blockchain. He presents the fundamentals of crypto-economic science, and answers questions such as: What is the intrinsic value of a medium of exchange? What is the value of consensus and how does it emerge? How can math be used to create distributed self-organizing consensus networks to create a data-marketplace for AI and machine learning?
Prof. Zhang is the JG Jackson and CJ Wood professor of physics at Stanford University. He is a member of the US National Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He discovered a new state of matter called topological insulator in which electrons can conduct along the edge without dissipation, enabling a new generation of electronic devices with much lower power consumption. For this ground breaking work he received numerous international awards, including the Buckley Prize, the Dirac Medal and Prize, the Europhysics Prize, the Physics Frontiers Prize and the Benjamin Franklin Medal.
He is also the founding chairman of DHVC venture capital fund, which invests in AI, blockchain, mobile internet, big data, AR/VR, genomics and precision medicine, sharing economy and robotics.

Views: 93162
Talks at Google

What is ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Identity-based cryptography is a type of public-key cryptography in which a publicly known string representing an individual or organization is used as a public key. The public string could include an email address, domain name, or a physical IP address.
The first implementation of identity-based signatures and an email-address based public-key infrastructure (PKI) was developed by Adi Shamir in 1984, which allowed users to verify digital signatures using only public information such as the user's identifier. Under Shamir's scheme, a trusted third party would deliver the private key to the user after verification of the user's identity, with verification essentially the same as that required for issuing a certificate in a typical PKI.
Shamir similarly proposed identity-based encryption, which appeared particularly attractive since there was no need to acquire an identity's public key prior to encryption. However, he was unable to come up with a concrete solution, and identity-based encryption remained an open problem for many years. The first practical implementations were finally devised by Sakai in 2000, and Boneh and Franklin in 2001. These solutions were based on bilinear pairings. Also in 2001, a solution was developed independently by Clifford Cocks.
Identity-based systems allow any party to generate a public key from a known identity value such as an ASCII string. A trusted third party, called the private key generator (PKG), generates the corresponding private keys. To operate, the PKG first publishes a master public key, and retains the corresponding master private key (referred to as master key). Given the master public key, any party can compute a public key corresponding to the identity ID by combining the master public key with the identity value. To obtain a corresponding private key, the party authorized to use the identity ID contacts the PKG, which uses the master private key to generate the private key for identity ID.
Identity-based systems have a characteristic problem in operation. Suppose Alice and Bob are users of such a system. Since the information needed to find Alice's public key is completely determined by Alice's ID and the master public key, it is not possible to revoke Alice's credentials and issue new credentials without either (a) changing Alice's ID (usually a phone number or an email address which will appear in a corporate directory); or (b) changing the master public key and re-issusing private keys to all users, including Bob.
This limitation may be overcome by including a time component (e.g. the current month) in the identity.

Views: 437
The Audiopedia

Krysta Svore, principal researcher at Microsoft, demonstrates the new Microsoft Quantum Development Kit, now in preview.
The Quantum Development Kit makes it easy for you to start experimenting with quantum computing now and includes:
· A native, quantum-focused programming language called Q#
· Local and Azure-hosted simulators for you to test your Q# solution
· And sample Q# code and libraries to help you get started
In this demo, she walks through a few code examples and explains where quantum principles like superposition and entanglement apply. She explains how quantum communication works using teleportation as your first "Hello World" inspired program. And keep watching to see more complex computations with molecular hydrogen.
Get started by accessing the preview at https://www.microsoft.com/quantumdevkit and there you can access Q#, the simulators, code samples and tutorials.
Documentation: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/quantum/index?view=qsharp-preview
Code samples: https://github.com/microsoft/quantum
Watch other shows in this series to learn about the Quantum Development Kit and how you can access local quantum simulators or in Azure.

Views: 149827
Microsoft Mechanics

As the former CTO of Goldman Sachs, Vern Brownell understands the technical challenges facing large financial institutions. He’ll share his unique perspective as the head of the leading quantum computer manufacturer, D-Wave, to provide an understanding of quantum computing and its radical impact on present and future computing.

Views: 8621
Singularity University Summits

Link to My Blog:- http://techdjdey.blogspot.in/
Video Editor used:- HitFilm 4 Express. https://hitfilm.com/
Screen recorder used:- iSpring Free Cam 8. https://www.ispringsolutions.com/ispring-free-cam
Music:- Elektronomia-Sky High. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TW9d8vYrVFQ
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Views: 2494
Dhrubajyoti Dey

What is VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information (pictures, text, etc.) to be encrypted in such a way that decryption becomes the job of the person to decrypt via sight reading.
One of the best-known techniques has been credited to Moni Naor and Adi Shamir, who developed it in 1994. They demonstrated a visual secret sharing scheme, where an image was broken up into n shares so that only someone with all n shares could decrypt the image, while any n - 1 shares revealed no information about the original image. Each share was printed on a separate transparency, and decryption was performed by overlaying the shares. When all n shares were overlaid, the original image would appear. There are several generalizations of the basic scheme including k-out-of-n visual cryptography.
Using a similar idea, transparencies can be used to implement a one-time pad encryption, where one transparency is a shared random pad, and another transparency acts as the ciphertext. Normally, there is an expansion of space requirement in visual cryptography. But if one of the two shares is structured recursively, the efficiency of visual cryptography can be increased to 100%.
Some antecedents of visual cryptography are in patents from the 1960s. Other antecedents are in the work on perception and secure communication.
Visual cryptography can be used to protect biometric templates in which decryption does not require any complex computations.

Views: 1223
The Audiopedia

How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption? I'll explain all of these in plain English!
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Simply Explained - Savjee

@Aman_Ishwar Student of CS IIIrd Year......
www.facebook.com/aman.ishwar

Views: 383
Fozail Ahmad

Views: 160
Dalton Gomez

As technology increases, so do the methods of encryption and decryption we have at our disposal. World War II saw wide use of various codes from substitution ciphers to employing Navajo code talkers in the Pacific theater. Here, science journalist and author Simon Singh demonstrates the German enigma machine, a typewriter-like device used to encrypt communications. He demonstrates not only its operation, but both the strength and fatal flaws in its method.
Watch the Full Program Here: https://youtu.be/nVVF8dgKC38
Original Program Date: June 4, 2011
The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF.
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Views: 516530
World Science Festival

Sources:
Terrorist surveillance program:
Original press release:
http://1.usa.gov/1p0lZXT
Assessment of potential effect of surveillance measures if implemented before 9/11:
Interview with FBI director Robert Mueller:
http://bit.ly/1MvHNpB
FBI investigations of immigrants:
"NSEERS effect" report:
http://bit.ly/1qU8Wcu
Quote on aggressive racial profiling:
Article "Are we safer?" by David Cole, Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center:
http://bit.ly/1Sc8tLo
Extent of NSA surveillance:
NSA power point slides on collecting buddy lists, obtained by Washington Post:
http://wapo.st/1cWi0SM
NSA slides on prism data collection, obtained by The Guardian:
http://bit.ly/1qmj46r
NSA results from mass surveillance vs. target surveillance:
Report from the Presidents NSA Review group 2013 (recommending to stop mass data mining because of lack of results):
http://1.usa.gov/1bK0q7x
Article from ProPublica:
http://bit.ly/1PAusfR
Analysis from the New America Foundation:
http://bit.ly/1SSq8ea
Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier
Surveillance program didn`t stop any major attacks:
Full video of court hearing with NSA director Keith B. Alexander on surveillance:
http://cs.pn/1Yv1G0N
Official report on results of phone surveillance policy:
http://1.usa.gov/1bK0q7x
Article on debunked claims:
http://bit.ly/1p0n2ae
Official judge ruling on matter points to no evidence:
https://www.propublica.org/documents/item/902454-judge-leon-ruling#document/p62
Report by the legal affairs and human rights committee of the parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe:
http://bit.ly/1qr9aXC
Boston marathon bomber was known to FBI:
Official press release:
http://1.usa.gov/1Vrw4vI
FBI asked Apple for help:
Official court order:
http://bit.ly/24auFf6
Apple`s refusal to crack iPhone:
Official public statement:
http://apple.co/1Lt7ReW
Objections against FBI demands from cryptographers:
Brad Smith keynote at the RSA information security conference:
http://bit.ly/1Vrwd1Y
(especially relevant from minute 7 on)
Statement by Information Technology Industry Council:
http://bit.ly/1Q9cg7N
Amicus briefs supporting Apple:
http://apple.co/1OSBypU
FBI changing their story about needing Apple`s help:
Initial article on Washington Post:
http://wapo.st/1KqHIT7
Initial story on Reutersblog:
http://reut.rs/1SCl73o
Update on Reuters:
http://reut.rs/1NdTJae
Article on ACLU about possible work-around:
http://bit.ly/1OZ2nZL
Blogpost on another possible workaround:
http://bit.ly/1Vrwv98
NSA can turn on iPhone remotely:
BBC interview with Edward Snowden:
http://bit.ly/1Nab09Q
Article on Wired:
http://bit.ly/1hvZMNn
Abuse of anti-terrorism laws:
Proof of Patriot Act laws used for investigating other crimes, especially drugs:
http://bit.ly/1LXBu9X
„Sneak and Peak“ report:
http://bit.ly/1RVGhgM
Enforcement of French anti-terrorism laws:
Detailed explanation of new powers given by extended laws:
http://bit.ly/1OYBpSl
Original law text (in french):
http://bit.ly/1qraiKQ
Abuse of french anti-terrorism laws:
Human rights watch reports cases:
http://bit.ly/1SZmwpH
Climate change protesters placed under house arrest:
http://reut.rs/20DYZfa
Censorship in Hungary, Poland and Spain:
http://bit.ly/20DZ3eS
http://bit.ly/1Qgc7lX
http://bit.ly/1WtmIyv
http://bit.ly/1MvJ8N7
Jail time for government critics in Turkey:
http://bit.ly/1oXBctf
Effects of surveillance on our society:
List of issues of power abuse since 9/11 by American Civil liberties union:
http://bit.ly/1U6Rux4
General overview over the topic:
http://bit.ly/1Pyj8uR
http://bit.ly/1RVH2GF
http://bit.ly/MZe4qY
Safe and Sorry– Terrorism & Mass Surveillance
Help us caption & translate this video!
http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2

Views: 3727487
Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell

What is QUANTUM LITHOGRAPHY? What does QUANTUM LITHOGRAPHY mean? QUANTUM LITHOGRAPHY meaning - QUANTUM LITHOGRAPHY definition - QUANTUM LITHOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Quantum lithography is a type of photolithography, which exploits non-classical properties of the photons, such as quantum entanglement, in order to achieve superior performance over ordinary classical lithography. Quantum lithography is closely related to the fields of quantum imaging, quantum metrology, and quantum sensing. The effect exploits the quantum mechanical state of light called the NOON state. Quantum lithography was invented at Jonathan P. Dowling's group at JPL, and has been studied by a number of groups.
Of particular importance, quantum lithography can beat the classical Rayleigh criterion for the diffraction limit. Classical photolithography has an optical imaging resolution that cannot be smaller than the wavelength of light used. For example, in the use of photolithography to mass-produce computer chips, it is desirable to produce smaller and smaller features on the chip, which classically requires moving to smaller and smaller wavelengths (ultraviolet and x-ray), which entails exponentially greater cost to produce the optical imaging systems at these extremely short optical wavelengths.
Quantum lithography exploits the quantum entanglement between specially prepared photons in the NOON state to achieve the smaller resolution without the requirement of shorter wavelengths. For example, a beam of red photons, entangled ten at a time in the NOON state, would have the same resolving power as a beam of x-ray photons.
The field of quantum lithography is in its infancy, and although experimental proofs of principal have been carried out using the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect, it is still a long way from commercial application.

Views: 91
The Audiopedia

Hiding your images in style since 1994.
Copyright Protection Scheme for Digital Images Using Visual Cryptography and Sampling Methods
Ching-Sheng Hsu
Young-Chang Hou
July 2005
RIT, IMGS-362
Image Processing & Computer Vision II

Views: 27574
Matt Donato

If you like this video and want to support me, go this page for my donation crypto addresses:
https://www.youtube.com/c/mobilefish/about
Update: In this video i mentioned Curl and the vulnerability found in this algorithm. However it seems that this is NOT correct.
Please read: https://blog.iota.org/official-iota-foundation-response-to-the-digital-currency-initiative-at-the-mit-media-lab-part-1-72434583a2
This is part 1 of the IOTA tutorial.
In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understand IOTA.
It is recommended to watch each video sequentially as I may refer to certain IOTA topics explained earlier.
IOTA is not an acronym for Internet of Things, (IoT) but it just mean something very small.
David Sønstebø, Sergey Ivancheglo, Dominik Schiener and Serguei Popov founded IOTA in 2015.
IOTA Foundation main focus is Internet of Things and the Machine Economy but this technology is well suited for payments between humans as well.
The IOTA white paper can be found at: https://iota.org/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf
All IOTA's which will ever exist have already been created.
The total IOTA supply is: 2,779,530,283,277,761 IOTAs
IOTA features
- Scalability
The network becomes stronger when the number of transactions increases.
IOTA can achieve high transaction throughput.
- Decentralisation
IOTA has no miners. Every transaction maker is also a transaction validator which means every transaction maker actively participates in the consensus.
- No transaction fees
IOTA has no transaction fees which means IOTA can be used for micropayments.
- Quantum computing protection
Quantum computers will be able to crack current data encryption methods much faster than current classical computers.
IOTA uses the Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme which is a quantum-resistant algorithm.
See: https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/191.pdf
IOTA is the 3rd generation public permissionless distributed ledger, based on a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). IOTA called this DAG the tangle.
The tangle is NOT the same as the Blockchain.
A tangle is a data structure based on Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG).
Each transaction always validates 2 previous non validated transactions.
Directed means the graph is pointing to one direction.
Tips are the unconfirmed transactions in the tangle graph.
Height is the length of the longest oriented path to the genesis.
Depth is the length of the longest reverse-oriented path to some tip.
Making a transaction is a 3 step process:
- Signing: Your node (computer / mobile) creates a transaction and sign it with your private key.
- Tip Selection: Your node chooses two other unconfirmed transactions (tips) using the Random Walk Monte Carlo (RWMC) algorithm.
- Proof of Work: Your node checks if the two transactions are not conflicting.
Next, the node must do some Proof of Work (PoW) by solving a cryptographic puzzle (hashcash).
Hashcash works by repeatedly hashing the same data with a tiny variation until a hash is found with a certain number of leading zero bits.
This PoW is to prevent spam and Sybil attacks.
The goal of the Random Walk Monte Carlo algorithm is to generate fair samples from some difficult distribution.
The Random Walk Monte Carlo (RWMC) algorithm is used in two ways:
- To choose two other unconfirmed transactions (tips) when creating a transaction.
- And to determine if a transaction is confirmed.
To determine the confirmation level of your transaction we need the depth to start from and we execute the Random Walk Monte Carlo algorithm N times, the probability of your transaction being accepted is therefore M of N. M being the number of times you land on a tip that has a path to your transaction.
If you execute RWMC 100 times, and 60 tips has a path to your transaction, than your transaction is 60% confirmed. It is up the the merchant to decide to accept the transaction and exchange goods. It is the same as Bitcoins where you want to wait for at least 6 blocks for high value transactions. Transactions with bigger depths takes longer to be validated.
An IOTA Reference Implementation (IRI), wallet and libraries are available at:
https://github.com/iotaledger
To setup a full node you need to tether with neighbours by exchanging your ip address with theirs.
Once you have sent a transaction from an address, you should never use this address again.
A tangle can get branch off and back into the network. This is called partitioning.
The Coordinator or ‘Coo’ for short, are several full nodes scattered across the world run by the IOTA Foundation.
It creates zero value transactions called milestones which full nodes reference to.
Check out all my other IOTA tutorial videos
https://goo.gl/aNHf1y
Subscribe to my YouTube channel:
https://goo.gl/61NFzK
The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at:
https://www.mobilefish.com/developer/iota/iota_quickguide_tutorial.html
#mobilefish #howto #iota

Views: 37404
Mobilefish.com

A presentation part of the cryptography course at Chalmers University, 2015. Starting with simple examples, we introduce Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme and how Lagrange interpolation fits in.
I may have misspoken at some points, but that's to keep you alert :)
Solution and follow up in https://youtu.be/rWPZoz0aux4

Views: 13880
SimplyScience

Namaskaar Dosto, maine is video mein aapse Digital Signatures ke baare mein baat ki hai, aap sabhi ne bahut baar inke baare mein suna hoga, daily life mein toh aap sabhi signatures ko use karte hai, but Digital Signatures ekdum alag concept hai aur kaafi important bhi hai. Mujhe umeed hai ki aapko Digital Signatures ke baare mein yeh video pasand aayega.
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Technical Guruji