Oil 101 - A FREE Introduction to the Oil and Gas Industry I this first of 10 modules, we introduce the learner to some key fundamentals of the Upstream segment of the oil and gas industry. The full Oil 101 course includes: +Introduction to Upstream +Introduction to Midstream +Introduction to Downstream +Introduction to Exploration +Introduction to Drilling +Introduction to Production +Introduction to Natural Gas +Introduction to Refining +Introduction to Supply and Trading +Introduction to Petroleum Product Marketing Learn More about Oil 101: http://www.ektinteractive.com/ http://www.ektinteractive.com/oil-101/ So, What is Upstream? Most oil and gas companies’ business structures are organized according to business segment, assets, or function. The upstream segment of oil and gas is also known as exploration and production, or E&P because it encompasses activities related to searching for, recovering, and producing crude oil and natural gas. Upstream is all about wells, where to locate them; how deep and how far to drill them; and how to design, construct, operate and manage them to deliver the greatest possible return on investment with the lightest, safest and smallest operational footprint. In fact, the E&P sector should probably be called the EDP sector - because “you can’t find oil if you don’t drill wells.” Exploration Obtaining the Lease Let’s start with exploration which involves the operator obtaining a lease and permission to drill from the owner of onshore or offshore acreage thought to contain oil or gas. Then the operator must conduct geological and geophysical surveys to select the first well site to explore for, and hopefully find, economic accumulations of oil or gas. This well is often called a “wildcat well.” Drilling is physically creating the “borehole” in the ground that will eventually become a productive oil or gas well. This work is typically done by rig contractors and service companies in the Oilfield Services business sector. On a wellsite, there can be as many as 30-40 different service contractors providing expertise to the operator. Wells can be relatively simple or unbelievably complex. Wells can totally vertical for miles or both deep and horizontal. There are also highly complex “J” and “S” configured wells with numerous branches, or laterals, emanating from the original, or “mother”, hole. These are called “deviated wells.” Production Finally, let’s discuss production, where reserves are “converted to cash” by maximizing the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. Essentially, production is efficiently bringing the hydrocarbons to the surface and treating them as needed to make them marketable. So that’s the basics of E&P. We will drill deeper into each of these operations in the complete Oil 101 course at a later date. Now, let’s talk about unconventional resources, clearly the hottest topic in oil and gas over the last decade. Unconventional Future of Oil and Gas Unconventional resources are defined as any resource extracted, or produced, by any method other than the traditional vertical or slightly deviated well. The three main sources of technological breakthroughs that have made unconventional developments profitable include: Horizontal drilling Hydraulic fracturing Subsea engineering (especially deep water production)
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PHMSA held a Hazardous Materials Safety Research and Development Forum on May 16 and 17, 2018, in Washington, D.C., to present the results of recently completed projects, solicit stakeholder input on plans for future projects, and discuss research gaps associated with topics of interest such as energetic materials characterization and transport, safe transport of energy products (STEP), and safe packaging and transportation of charge storage devices.
What's Cooking with Natural Gas? - Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming - 2008-07-30 - The Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming held a hearing on what role natural gas can play in a climate-friendly energy future on Wednesday July 30, 2008. Natural gas plays a critical role in numerous sectors of our economy from home heating to chemical production to electricity generation to transportation fuel. With 3.4 percent of global natural gas reserves, the United States has the fifth largest reserves in the world. Since a low in 1986, domestic consumption of natural gas has generally increased and its uses have broadened. Natural gas has especially become popular as a cleaner alternative to coal in the electrical utility sector and gasoline and diesel in the transportation sector. As Congress considers energy policies that will increase our energy independence and help solve global warming, understanding the role of natural gas in our economy and how it might contribute to energy policies is critical. WITNESS LIST: Aubrey McClendon, CEO, Chesapeake Energy; Clay Harris, CEO, Suez LNG North America; David Manning, Executive VP, National Grid; Rich Wells, Vice President Energy, The Dow Chemical Company; John German, Manager Environmental and Energy Analysis, American Honda; Mark Smith, Executive Director, Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States. Video provided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
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Economics of Dependence on Foreign Oil - Rising Gasoline Prices - Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming - 2007-05-09 - AS PRICES BREAK RECORDS, PERSONAL STORIES FROM BUSINESSPEOPLE, FARMERS, BUS DRIVERS REVEAL ECONOMIC TOLL OF AMERICA'S OIL DEPENDENCE. WITNESS TESTIMONY: Sylvia Estes, Pipeline and Industrial Group, Virginia Beach, VA; Michael Mitternight, Factory Service Agency, Metairie, LA; Terry Thomas, President and CEO, Community Bus Services Inc., Youngstown, OH; Donn Teske, Farmer and President, Kansas Farmers Union, McPherson, KS; John Felmy, Chief Economist, American Petroleum Institute. Video provided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
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Natural gas, like many other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in natural gas. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame. Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to, and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil. Reserves may be for a well, for a reservoir, for a field, for a nation, or for the world. Different classifications of reserves are related to their degree of certainty. The total estimated amount of oil in an oil reservoir, including both producible and non-producible oil, is called oil in place. However, because of reservoir characteristics and limitations in petroleum extraction technologies, only a fraction of this oil can be brought to the surface, and it is only this producible fraction that is considered to be reserves. The ratio of reserves to the total amount of oil in a particular reservoir is called the recovery factor. Determining a recovery factor for a given field depends on several features of the operation, including method of oil recovery used and technological developments. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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