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Crystallinity in Polymers
 
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Crystallinity in Polymers
Melting and recrystallization of a sPP-PS polymer film
 
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This movie shows a polymer thin film consisting of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) and polystyrene (PS) that was imaged as a function of changing temperature on the Cypher ES AFM using blueDrive photothermal excitation. The scan size is 3 µm and the data channel shown is phase because it shows the most contrast. The round, isolated domains are PS and the continuous matrix around them is the sPP. Note that the melting temperature of sPP is ~ 130-170°C while the melting temperature of PS is ~240°C. The movie starts with the sample at ~60°C. It is then slowly heated to ~135°C, during which time you can observe the PP crystallites melt, diminishing in size and forming a melted layer. You can actually see the high motility of the crystallites in the melt. Notably the heating is stopped before the sPP is fully melted and the sample is then slowly cooled. The remaining crystallites act as nucleation sites, recrystallizing and growing. Once the temperature has returned to 60°C, you see larger features appear. Note that the recrystallization occurs much differently if the sPP is fully melted. This case can be seen in another movie here http://www.asylumresearch.com/Gallery/Movies/Movie23.shtml.
Views: 1929 AsylumResearchVideo
Polypropylene
 
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Polypropylene Polypropylene enjoys wide application in technology engineering. This is a synthetic thermoplastic non-polar polymer classified as polyolefin. It is the product of propylene polymerization. Polypropylene is a solid white material with the chemical formula of C3H6. Propylene polymerization results in polypropylene linear molecule whose building blocks include -CH2-CH- bond with CH3 methyl side group. According to the methyl group position in the polymer chain, polypropylenes fall under: atactic polypropylenes whose methyl groups are located randomly at both sides of the polymer chain; syndiotactic polypropylenes whose groups have alternate positions along the chain; and isotactic polypropylenes whose all methyl groups are located on the same side of the polymer chain. Such polypropylenes are 50% more rigid and 25% harder than atactic polypropylenes. Polypropylene's physical, chemical, mechanical and electric properties greatly depend on the macromolecular structure. Polypropylene is marked as double-P both in Cyrillic and Latin alphabet. Polypropylene is a plastic material demonstrating high impact and cross-breaking strength. It is wear-resistant and has good electric insulation properties within wide temperature ranges. It is also chemically stable and water-resistant. Polypropylene products are manufactured based on all thermoplastic material processing technologies. Polypropylene finds wide application in the industry. It is used to produce packaging and car components, case works and pipelines. It is also widely used in electronic engineering. Polypropylene is used to produce packages to a lesser extent, however, than polystyrene and ABS resins. But unlike the latter, polypropylene packages can stand load impacts and are more resistant to abrasion damages. That's why they can be used under unfavorable environment. Polypropylene is used as a dielectric material in capacitors, for instance, in Russian K78-2 capacitors or as electric insulation. Recently, polypropylene has earned a great deal of popularity as internal insulators in high-voltage cables and has become a good substitute for polyethylene.
Views: 23589 ChipDipvideo
Organic Addition Polymers 2. Production of HDPE
 
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This short video takes a relatively simplistic look at the action of a Zeigler-Natta catalyst in the production of High Density Polyethene (HDPE). HDPE molecules have little branching, resulting in a more crystalline structure and higher melting temperature.
Views: 18590 FranklyChemistry
64- Ethylene polymerization
 
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Ethylene polymerization: initiation, propagation and termination of polyethylene
Syndiotactic PP
 
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Views: 307 pcpainter1
What is THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN? What does THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN mean? THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN meaning
 
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What is THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN? What does THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN mean? THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN meaning - THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN definition - THERMOPLASTIC OLEFIN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), or olefinic thermoplastic elastomers refer to polymer/filler blends usually consisting of some fraction of a thermoplastic, an elastomer or rubber, and usually a filler. Thermoplastics may include polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), block copolymer polypropylene (BCPP), and others. Common fillers include, though are not restricted to talc, fiberglass, carbon fiber, wollastonite, and MOS (Metal Oxy Sulfate). Common elastomers include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), EPDM (EP-diene rubber), ethylene-octene (EO), ethylbenzene (EB), and styrene ethylene butadiene styrene (SEBS). Currently there are a great variety of commercially available rubbers and BCPP's. They are produced using regioselective and stereoselective catalysts known as metallocenes. The metallocene catalyst becomes embedded in the polymer and cannot be recovered. The geometry of the metallocene catalyst will determine the sequence of chirality in the chain, as in, atactic, syndiotactic, isotactic, as well as average block length, molecular weight and distribution. These characteristics will in turn govern the microstructure of the blend. Components for TPO are blended together at 210 - 270 °C under high shear. A twin screw extruder or a continuous mixer may be employed to achieve a continuous stream, or a Banbury compounder may be employed for batch production. A higher degree of mixing and dispersion is achieved in the batch process, but the superheat batch must immediately be processed through an extruder to be pelletized into a transportable intermediate. Thus batch production essentially adds an additional cost step. As in metal alloys the properties of a TPO product depend greatly upon controlling the size and distribution of the microstructure. PP and PE form a vaguely crystalline structure known as a spherulite. Unlike metals, a spherulite cannot be described in terms of a lattice or unit cell, but rather as a set of polymer chains that pack down closely next to one another and form a dense core. The PP and PE components of a blend constitute the "crystalline phase", and the rubber gives the "amorphous phase". If PP and PE are the dominant component of a TPO blend then the rubber fraction will be dispersed into a continuous matrix of "crystalline" polypropylene. If the fraction of rubber is greater than 40% phase inversion may be possible when the blend cools, resulting in an amorphous continuous phase, and a crystalline dispersed phase. This type of material is non-rigid, and is sometimes called TPR for ThermoPlastic Rubber. To increase the rigidity of a TPO blend, fillers exploit a surface tension phenomena. By selecting a filler with a higher surface area per weight, a higher flexural modulus can be achieved. Specific density of TPO blends range from 0.92 to 1.1. Outdoor applications such as roofing frequently contain TPO because it does not degrade under solar UV radiation, a common problem with nylons. TPO is used extensively in the automotive industry. TPO is easily processed by injection molding, profile extrusion, and thermoforming. However, TPO cannot be blown, or sustain a film thickness less than 1/4 mil (about 6 micrometres).
Views: 687 The Audiopedia
PROBLEM ON CRYSTALLINITY OF A POLYMER
 
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THIS CONTAINS DESCRIPTION OF FORMULA FOR CALCULATION OF CRYSTALLINITY OF POLYMER AND FACTORS WHICH AFFECT CRYSTALLISATION OF POLYMER DURING SOLIDIFICATION
SFCM_09_23: REVERSIBLY CROSSLINKED ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
 
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PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF REVERSIBLY CROSSLINKED ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES SAID BOUHELAL LMPMP, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING FERHAT ABBAS UNIVERSITY, SÉTIF, ARGELIA. New advances concerning the methodology employed to prepare nanocomposites of iPP and nanoclays are reported. Conventional (reactive melt mixing) and "in situ" preparations were performed, and the structural properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. Results suggest that the nanoclay exhibits a partial and, in some cases a total exfoliation within the composites. Adhesion between the polymeric matrix and the nanoclay layers is similar to that obtained after grafting. The analysis performed using the WAXS and DSC techniques permits to describe, at nano-scale level, the contribution of the nanoclay to the nanocomposite system. The microhardness values of the iPP-clay composites depend on the clay content and on the preparation method, and linearly correlate, according to the additivity law, with the degree of crystallinity. Any kind of industrial equipments can be used to perform the reactive melt processing, i.e., injection molding, calendering, etc. In each processing method, the effective shearing produced on the composites is different. All the crosslinked samples show polymorphism. The -form, and its transformations during the heating process, are responsible for the melting behavior of the samples with 16-30 wt % of clay. The nanoclay content seems to affect the nanostructure and consequently, the microhardness of the samples in a similar manner. Results reveal that the microhardness of the nanocomposites is also affected by the preparation method, influencing the surface free energy of the crystals. SEMINARIOS DE FRONTERAS DE LA CIENCIA DE MATERIALES DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIA DE MATERIALES ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos. UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID http://www.mater.upm.es/Seminarios.asp Video Realizado por el Gabinete de Tele-Educación de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
Views: 3159 UPM
Glass transition temperature (Tg)- Polymer Chemistry
 
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Anna University Engineering Chemistry-1 (Notes) CY6151 Unit-1 Polymer Chemistry Properties of Polymer Glass Transition temperature
Views: 45178 vijaya rajadurai
Polymeric Structure
 
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This lecture explains about the molecular weight calculation in polymers, physical states of polymer, tacticity.
Mod-08 Lec-02 Polymers:Polyolefins,Polyethylene,Polypropylene Polystyrene
 
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Chemical Technology - I by Dr. I.D.Mall,Department of Chemical Engineering,IIT Roorkee.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 5332 nptelhrd
Thermoplasts and Thermosets
 
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Thermoplasts and Thermosets
Effects of Glass transition temperature
 
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This lecture explains the concept of Glass transition temperature, experimental methods to determine it and discusses the factors which affect it.
Mod-01 Lec-35 Amorphous and Crystalline State : Tg and Tm
 
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Polymer Chemistry by Dr. D. Dhara,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 16802 nptelhrd
Mod-04 Lec-11 Structure and Properties of Polymers (Contd. )
 
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Science and Technology of Polymers by Prof. B. Adhikari,Department of Metallurgy and Material Science,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 1927 nptelhrd
Industrial Polymers, Additives, Colourants and Fillers
 
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Y_763 Industrial Polymers, Additives, Colourants and Fillers (Stabilizers, Pigments, Olefin Copolymers, Polyacrylamide, Polysulfone, Polymerization, Allyl Resins (DAP/DAIP), Fluoropolymers, Poly (Vinylidene, Resin Forms, Polyamide-Imide (PAI), Polycarbonate (PC), Fillers, Calcium Carbonate, Fillers, Kaolin, Fillers, Mica) The Indian plastic and polymer industry has taken great strides. In the last few decades, the industry has grown to the status of a leading sector in the country with a sizable base. The material is gaining notable importance in different spheres of activity and the per capita consumption is increasing at a fast pace. Numerous plastics and fibers are produced from synthetic polymers; containers from propylene, coating materials from PVC, packaging film from polyethylene, experimental apparatus from Teflon, stockings from nylon fiber, there are too many to mention them all. See more https://goo.gl/ptfd4d https://goo.gl/07d9lm https://goo.gl/BY1XbB Contact us: Niir Project Consultancy Services 106-E, Kamla Nagar, Opp. Spark Mall, New Delhi-110007, India. Email: [email protected] , [email protected] Tel: +91-11-23843955, 23845654, 23845886, 8800733955 Mobile: +91-9811043595 Website: www.entrepreneurindia.co , www.niir.org Tags Industrial Polymers, Industrial Polymers in India, Industrial Additives, Additives Industry, Chemicals and Industrial Polymers, Industrial Polymers & Additives, Industrial Colorants, Industrial Colourants and Polymers, Industrial Colorants Materials, Industrial Fillers, Fillers Business & Industrial Polymers, Opportunities in Fillers Industry, Chlorinated Polyethylene, Cross-Linked Polyethylene, Linear Low-Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), High-Molecular-Weight High-Density Polyethylene, Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Olefin Copolymers, Ethylene-Propylene Elastomer, Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomers, Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers, Thermoplastic Polyolefin Elastomers, Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer, Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Terpolymer, Poly (Acrylic Acid) and Poly (Methacrylic Acid), Condensation Polymers, Polyesters, Poly (Dihydroxymethylcyclohexyl Terephthalate), Polyester-Glass-Fiber Laminates (GRP, FRP), Formaldehyde Resins, Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins, Urea-Formaldehyde Resins, Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins, Thermoplastic Polyurethane Rubbers, Ether Polymers, Polyurethane Coatings, Poly (Phenylene Oxide), Poly (Phenylene Sulfide), Silicones and Other Inorganic Polymers, Polyethylene, High Density (HDPE), Allyl Resins (Dap/Daip), Fluoropolymers, Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF), Film Extrusion, Injection Molding, Polyamide-Imide (PAI), Polybutylene (PB), Polycarbonate (Pc), Polyethylene Linear Low Density (LLDPE), Flexible Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (FPVC), Fillers, Calcium Carbonate, Fillers, Kaolin, Air-Floated Kaolin, Water-Washed Kaolin, Calcined Kaolin, Surface-Modified Kaolins, Pigments and Dyes, Fillers, Alumina Trihydrate (ATH), Unsuaturated Polyester, Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (Abs), Fillers, Fiber Glass, Polyethylene, Low Density (LDPE), Fillers, Calcium Sulfate, Polymers Filled, Silicone Fluids, Silicone Resins, Silicone Rubbers, Piezoelectric Polymers, Processability of HDPE, NPCS, Niir, Process technology books, Business consultancy, Business consultant, Project identification and selection, Preparation of Project Profiles, Startup, Business guidance, Business guidance to clients, Startup Project, Startup ideas, Project for startups, Startup project plan, Business start-up, Business Plan for Startup Business, Great Opportunity for Startup, Small Start-up Business Project, Best small and cottage scale industries, Startup India, Stand up India, Small Scale Industries, New small scale ideas for Industrial Colourants, Industrial Polymers Business Ideas you can start on your own, Small scale Industrial Colourants, Guide to Starting and Operating Small Business, Business Ideas for Industrial Fillers, How to start Industrial Polymers business, Start Your Own Industrial Fillers Business, Industrial Colourants Business Plan, Business plan for Industrial Additives, Small Scale Industries in India, Industrial Polymers Based Small Business Ideas in India, Small Scale Industry You Can Start on Your Own, Business plan for small scale industries, Profitable Small Scale Manufacturing, How to Start Small Business in India, Free Manufacturing Business Plans, Small and Medium Scale Manufacturing, Profitable Small Business Industries Ideas, Business ideas for Startup
Crystalline And Amorphous Solids
 
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Follow us at: https://plus.google.com/+tutorvista/ Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iii/solids-and-fluids/amorphous-solids.php Crystalline And Amorphous Solids Amorphous solids and crystalline solids if the size of the crystals is very small. Even amorphous materials have some short-range order at the atomic length scale due the nature of chemical bonding. Furthermore, in very small crystals a large fraction of the atoms are located at or near the surface of the crystal; relaxation of the surface and interfacial effects distort the atomic positions, decreasing the structural order. Even the most advanced structural characterization techniques, such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, have difficulty in distinguishing between amorphous and crystalline structures on these length scales.The transition from the liquid state to the glass, at a temperature below the equilibrium melting point of the material, is called the glass transition. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is the temperature at which an amorphous solid, such as glass or a polymer, becomes brittle on cooling, or soft on heating. More specifically, it defines a pseudo second order phase transition in which a supercooled melt yields, on cooling, a glassy structure and properties similar to those of crystalline materials e.g. of an isotropic solid material. Tg is usually applicable to wholly or partially amorphous solids such as common glasses and plastics (organic polymers). Below the glass transition temperature, Tg, amorphous solids are in a glassy state and most of their joining bonds are intact. In inorganic glasses, with increased temperature more and more joining bonds are broken by thermal fluctuations so that broken bonds (termed configurons) begin to form clusters. Above Tg these clusters become macroscopic large facilitating the flow of material. In organic polymers, secondary, non-covalent bonds between the polymer chains become weak above Tg. Above Tg glasses and organic polymers become soft and capable of plastic deformation without fracture. This behavior is one of the things which make most plastics useful . It is important to note that the glass transition temperature is a kinetic parameter, and thus parametrically depends on the melt cooling rate. Thus the slower the melt cooling rate, the lower Tg. In addition, Tg depends on the measurement conditions, which are not universally defined . The glass transition temperature is approximately the temperature at which the viscosity of the liquid exceeds a certain value (about 1012 Pa•s). The transition temperature depends on cooling rate, with the glass transition occurring at higher temperatures for faster cooling rates. The precise nature of the glass transition is the subject of ongoing research. While it is clear that the glass transition is not a first-order thermodynamic transition (such as melting), there is debate as to whether it is a higher-order transition such percolation type transformation , or merely a kinetic effect. The process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in the fluid is often referred to as crystallization. In the old example referenced by the root meaning of the word crystal, water being cooled undergoes a phase change from liquid to solid beginning with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. The physical properties of the ice depend on the size and arrangement of the individual crystals, or grains, and the same may be said of metals solidifying from a molten state.Which crystal structure the fluid will form depends on the chemistry of the fluid, the conditions under which it is being solidified, and also on the ambient pressure. While the cooling process usually results in the generation of a crystalline material, under certain conditions, the fluid may be frozen in a noncrystalline state. In most cases, this involves cooling the fluid so rapidly that atoms cannot travel to their lattice sites before they lose mobility. A noncrystalline material, which has no long-range order, is called an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy material. Please like our facebook page http://www.facebook.com/tutorvista
Views: 99202 TutorVista
Polymers
 
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Polymers
Mod-01 Lec-02 Introduction to Polymers (Contd.)
 
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Polymer Chemistry by Dr. D. Dhara,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 8955 nptelhrd
16. Isoprenoids, Rubber, and Tuning Polymer Properties
 
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Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B) Isoprenoid or terpene natural products, that seem to be made from isoprene (2-methylbutadiene), are formed by oligomerization of electrophilic isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). Latex, the polymer of IPP, became commercially important when Charles Goodyear, a New Haven native, discovered how to vulcanize rubber. Statistical mechanics explains such curious properties of rubber as contraction upon heating when tightly stretched. Specific chemical treatment confers useful properties on a wide variety of polymers, including hair, synthetic rubber, and plastics. The structure of copolymers demonstrates non-Hammond behavior and ionic character in the transition state for free-radical polymerization. 00:00 - Chapter 1. IPP as the Carbon Electrophile in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis 13:56 - Chapter 2. Latex, Rubber, and Vulcanization 20:14 - Chapter 3. Understanding Vulcanization - Polymer Properties and Statistical Mechanics 35:34 - Chapter 4. Other Polymers and Their Properties 38:22 - Chapter 5. Synthetic Polymers and Free-Radical Copolymerization Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu This course was recorded in Spring 2011.
Views: 3937 YaleCourses
Syndiotactic Meaning
 
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Video shows what syndiotactic means. Having substituents arranged in alternating (rather than random) configuration in each repeat unit. Syndiotactic Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say syndiotactic. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 119 ADictionary
Classification Of Polymers (Part -2)
 
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3)Classification on the basis of Monomers:- According to number of monomers, Polymers are of two types. a) Homopolymer b) Co-Polymers a) Homopolymers:- Polymers which are formed by repeated combination of only one type of monomer,are called homopolymer. Examples are :- Polyvinyl chloride, Polyethylene, polystyrene, poly vinyl acetate, polypropylene, Teflon etc. b) Co-Polymers- These are the Polymers which are obtained by the repeated combination of two or more type of monomer. Examples are- BUNA-S, BUNA-N etc. 4) Classification on the basis of Tacticity or configuration:- Tacticity means orientation of side group around the main backbone chain in three dimensional structure of a polymer. There are three types of Tacticity. a) Atactic Polymers b) Syndiotactic Polymers c) Isotactic Polymers a) Atactic Polymers:- When the side group at arranged in an irregular random fashion, then the polymer is Atactic. b) Syndiotactic Polymers:- Arrangement Of side groups in is alternating fashion. c) When the side group are all on the same side of the chain,then the polymer is isotactic. Follow me on Instagram:-https://www.instagram.com/ruchu305/ Facebook:-https://www.facebook.com/ruchu.singh.9
Views: 369 Ruchi Upadhyay
High Impact Polystyrene
 
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High Impact Polystyrene: High Impact Polystyrene sheet (HIPS SHEET) is a versatile, cost effective material. HIPS single and multilayer sheet structures are engineered from the toughest polystyrene resins to add a superior balance of enhanced properties for color control, higher gloss, UV protection, appearance, stiffness, deep-draw formability, and high impact strength. We offer several sheet grades of High Impact Polystyrene, custom made for your market application: FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF High Impact Polystyrene: Good impact strength Easy to process Good depth of draw ratio Good dimensional stability Fully recyclable with minimal loss in properties TARGET MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS OF High Impact Polystyrene: High Impact Polystyrene are used for Building and Construction: sanitary ware, bath surrounds, walls, trays and liners High Impact Polystyrene are used for POP displays: in-store signage, merchandise displays, trays High Impact Polystyrene are used for Packaging: trays, tubs and clam shells, shipping containers, boxes, horticultural trays and labels, food service plates, cake platters High Impact Polystyrene are used for ignage: thermoformed and flat COLORS AND TEXTURES OF HIPS SHEET: Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene Products can be color matched to meet your specifications Available textures - Smooth, Matte
Views: 903 Seed Trays
Glass transition temperature in hindi
 
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glass transition temperature, glass transition temperature and melting temperature, glass transition temperature explained, glass transition temperature in hindi, glass transition temperature polymer, glass transition temperature animation, glass transition temperature of polypropylene, glass transition temperature from dma, glass transition temperature of pla, glass transition temperature of water, glass transition temperature of polymers, glass transition temperature of glass, glass transition temperature application, glass transition temperature dma, glass transition temperature definition, glass transition temperature dsc, glass transition temperature for polymers, factors affecting glass transition temperature, glass transition temperature graph, glass transition temperature in polymers, glass transition temperature of pp, glass transition temperature polypropylene, glass transition temperature plastics, pp glass transition temperature, glass transition temperature testing, tg glass transition temperature, what is glass transition temperature
Views: 1928 Navneet
Polymers: Introduction and Classification
 
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This lecture introduces to the basics of Polymers, their classifications and application over wide domains.
Mod-01 Lec-23 Polymer Stereochemistry and Coordination Polymerization
 
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Polymer Chemistry by Dr. D. Dhara,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 5198 nptelhrd
Polymer Stereochemistry and Coordination Polymerization
 
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Subject: Chemistry and Biochemistry Courses: Polymer Chemistry
Polymer | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer 00:02:36 1 Common examples 00:04:05 2 Synthesis 00:05:47 2.1 Biological synthesis 00:06:38 2.2 Modification of natural polymers 00:07:50 3 Properties 00:08:45 3.1 Monomers and repeat units 00:09:56 3.2 Microstructure 00:10:33 3.2.1 Polymer architecture 00:11:36 3.2.2 Chain length 00:13:49 3.2.3 Monomer arrangement in copolymers 00:15:58 3.2.4 Tacticity 00:16:26 3.3 Morphology 00:16:42 3.3.1 Crystallinity 00:18:23 3.3.2 Chain conformation 00:18:52 3.4 Mechanical properties 00:19:12 3.4.1 Tensile strength 00:19:46 3.4.2 Young's modulus of elasticity 00:20:34 3.5 Transport properties 00:20:56 3.6 Phase behavior 00:21:04 3.6.1 Melting point 00:21:41 3.6.2 Glass transition temperature 00:22:13 3.6.3 Mixing behavior 00:24:40 3.6.4 Inclusion of plasticizers 00:25:34 3.7 Chemical properties 00:27:35 3.8 Optical properties 00:28:36 4 Standardized nomenclature 00:29:39 5 Characterization 00:31:38 6 Degradation 00:34:12 6.1 Product failure Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A polymer (; Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "part"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis.Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a natural/biological polymer, and the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules—i.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.The simplest theoretical models for polymers are ideal chains.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Polymer | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Polymer 00:02:36 1 Common examples 00:04:05 2 Synthesis 00:05:46 2.1 Biological synthesis 00:06:37 2.2 Modification of natural polymers 00:07:50 3 Properties 00:08:44 3.1 Monomers and repeat units 00:09:55 3.2 Microstructure 00:10:31 3.2.1 Polymer architecture 00:11:34 3.2.2 Chain length 00:13:40 3.2.3 Monomer arrangement in copolymers 00:15:48 3.2.4 Tacticity 00:16:16 3.3 Morphology 00:16:32 3.3.1 Crystallinity 00:18:12 3.3.2 Chain conformation 00:18:42 3.4 Mechanical properties 00:19:02 3.4.1 Tensile strength 00:19:35 3.4.2 Young's modulus of elasticity 00:20:23 3.5 Transport properties 00:20:45 3.6 Phase behavior 00:20:54 3.6.1 Melting point 00:21:30 3.6.2 Glass transition temperature 00:22:02 3.6.3 Mixing behavior 00:24:29 3.6.4 Inclusion of plasticizers 00:25:23 3.7 Chemical properties 00:27:24 3.8 Optical properties 00:28:24 4 Standardized nomenclature 00:29:27 5 Characterization 00:31:48 6 Degradation 00:34:22 6.1 Product failure Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A polymer (; Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "part"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis.Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a natural/biological polymer, and the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules—i.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.The simplest theoretical models for polymers are ideal chains.
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Lec 29 | MIT 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry
 
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Structure-property Relationships in Polymers, Crystalline Polymers View the complete course at: http://ocw.mit.edu/3-091F04 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 30023 MIT OpenCourseWare
JACOBSON - CHINAPLAS 2013 - IDEMITSU XAREC SPS
 
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XAREC Syndiotactic Polystyrene XAREC is the world's first syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS) resin. Idemitsu created this unique SPS product at our central research laboratories by combining a metallocene catalyst with a styrene monomer. The metallocene catalyst gives flexibility to the structure of the crystallized polystyrene SPS, allowing a variety of benzene ring arrangements. In addition, we have applied our advanced alloying and composite technology to greatly expand the commercial potential of XAREC as an engineering plastic. XAREC is not only a superior engineering plastic, but is also environmentally friendly. This combination makes it the first choice for many of our customers. . Resistance to hydrolysis Compared to polyester- and polyamide-based resins, XAREC offers a superior hydrolysis resistance, comparable to polyphenylene sulfide. Chemical resistance XAREC is highly resistant to corrosion by various acids and alkalis, and can withstand automobile oils and antifreeze. Low specific gravity With one of the lowest specific gravities of all engineering plastics on the market, XAREC reduces the weight and cost of parts. Heat resistance With a long-term heat resistance of 130°C, a heat distortion temperature of 250°C and a melting point of 270°C, XAREC can be used for wave and reflow soldering. XAREC is also moisture resistant, and useful for surface mount chip parts and connectors. Electrical properties XAREC's electrical properties, including its dissipation factor and dielectric constant, are similar to those of fluororesins. Because it is electrically stable over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures, XAREC is suitable for high-frequency components. Dimensional stability Because the flow and transversal direction of the molten resin changes little during mold shrinkage, XAREC offers good dimensional performance when compared to other glass-fiber-reinforced crystalline resins. Processability XAREC can easily be molded on any standard specification injection molding machine. It possesses high flow properties, close to those of liquid crystal plastic, and degradation due to heating is minimal. It is also ground easily, making XAREC easy to recycle.
Introduction to Polymers
 
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Views: 1671 IIT Guwahati
Mod-01 Lec-03 Basic Concepts on Polymers (Contd.)
 
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Science and Technology of Polymers by Prof. B. Adhikari,Department of Metallurgy and Material Science,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 2845 nptelhrd
NSF Distinguished Lecture: Dr. Richard Schrock (MIT), 2005 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
 
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Dr. Richard Schrock (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) delivers a lecture entitled “The Story of Two Metal-Catalyzed Reactions that Changed Organic Chemistry: The Role of NSF in Work that Led to a Nobel Prize.” This lecture is part of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Distinguished Lecture series in Mathematical & Physical Sciences. Online viewers may submit questions during the livestream to [email protected] -- Abstract: Nearly half a century ago a forbidden reaction according to orbital symmetry rules was serendipitously discovered. In this process, two olefins (compounds with a carbon–carbon double bond) were converted into two new olefins in the presence of catalysts prepared from tungsten, molybdenum, or rhenium oxides supported on silica or alumina. This reaction known as metathesis is used in multimillion industrial processes in the petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries and for high-strength materials. On paper the carbon-carbon double bonds (C=C) in the original olefins appeared to be cleaved and the halves recombined to give the new olefins. An analogous reaction for carbon-carbon triple bonds was discovered some years later. Several decades were required to unravel the related mechanisms for these olefin and acetylene metathesis reactions. This was done largely through the synthesis of new types of organometallic compounds and the synthesis and study of homogeneous catalysts for each reaction. Today a wide variety of reactions that cannot be achieved catalytically with traditional organic chemistry are based on carbon–carbon double or (to a lesser extent) triple bond metathesis reactions. In this lecture, Dr. Schrock will discuss the important role that NSF played in the work that led to the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to him, Yves Chauvin and Robert Grubbs for the elucidation of the mechanism in how this change-your-partners dance takes place and will show how many recalcitrant problems have since then been solved and research continues to attack those that remain in this ever-expanding field of organometallic/organic catalytic chemistry. -- Additional Resources: MPS Distinguished Lecture Series: https://www.nsf.gov/events/event_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243088&WT.mc_id=USNSF_13&WT.mc_ev=click Dr. Schrock’s research page: https://schrockgroup.mit.edu/. Dr. Schrock’s Nobel Prize information: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/2005/schrock/facts/
Global Polypropylene Catalyst Market to 2020: Forecasts, Analysis and Growth
 
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Priced at $4650 for a single user PDF, a discount on “Polypropylene Catalyst Market by Type (Ziegler Natta, and Metallocene), by Catalyst Manufacturing Process (Bulk Slurry and Gas Phase) - Global trends & forecast to 2020” research report can be requested at http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/contacts/discount?rname=328725 .
Views: 65 Nancy Freedman
Lec 28 | MIT 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry
 
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Organic Glasses - Polymers: Synthesis by Addition Polymerization and by Condensation Polymerization View the complete course at: http://ocw.mit.edu/3-091F04 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 31604 MIT OpenCourseWare
15. Metals and Catalysis in Alkene Oxidation, Hydrogenation, Metathesis, and Polymerization
 
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Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B) Alkenes may be oxidized to diols by permanganate or by OsO4 catalysis. Metal catalysts provide orbitals that allow simultaneous formation of two bonds from metal to alkene or H2. Coupling such oxidative additions to reductive eliminations, provides a low-energy catalytic path for addition of H2 to an alkene. Such catalytic hydrogenation is often said to involve syn stereochemistry, but the primary literature shows that addition can be anti when allylic rearrangement occurs on the catalyst. Similar oxidative/reductive cycles operate in olefin metathesis and metal-catalyzed polymerization. Careful catalyst design allows control over polymer stereochemistry (tacticity). Polymerizations catalyzed by free-radicals or acids typically lack stereochemical control, but there are ways to control regiochemistry and chain length. Latex, a natural polymer, coagulates to form a rubber ball. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Alkene Dihydroxylation 04:28 - Chapter 2. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Alkenes: Oxidative Addition, Reductive Elimination 15:08 - Chapter 3. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Alkenes: Stereochemistry 25:50 - Chapter 4. Olefin Metathesis, Polymerization, and Tacticity 39:00 - Chapter 5. Radical Polymerization 43:16 - Chapter 6. Electrophilic Oligomerization and Polymerization and Rubber Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu This course was recorded in Spring 2011.
Views: 7556 YaleCourses
Global And China Syndiotactic Polystyrene SPS Industry 2013 Market Research Report
 
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QY Research Reports introduced market research and analysis report on Global And China Syndiotactic Polystyrene SPS Industry 2013 at http://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-and-china-syndiotacticpolystyrene-sps-industry-2013-market-research-report.htm This report also includes more info about basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications and industry china structure industry overview; international market analysis, Global and China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Syndiotacticpolystyrene (SPS) Industry policy and plan, Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information For more details visit at : http://www.qyresearchreports.com/ Table of Contents Chapter One Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Overview 1.1 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Definition 1.2 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Classification and Application 1.3 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Chain Structure 1.4 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Overview Chapter Two Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Market Status Analysis 2.1 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Development Status Analysis 2.2 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Market Competition Overview 2.3 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Market Dynamic and Trend Analysis 2.4 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Main Manufacturers Products Comparative Analysis Chapter Three Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Development Environmental Analysis 3.1 Global and China Economic Environmental Analysis 3.2 European Economic Environmental Analysis and Impact 3.3 United States Economic Environmental Analysis and Impact 3.4 Japan Economic Environmental Analysis and Impact 3.5 Global Economic Environmental Analysis and Impact Chapter Four Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Development Policy and Plan 4.1 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Policy Analysis 4.2 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry News Analysiss 4.3 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Industry Development Trend Chapter Five Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Manufacturing Process and Cost Structure 5.1 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Product Specifications 5.2 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Manufacturing Process Analysis 5.3 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Cost Structure Analysis Chapter Six 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Productions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast 6.1 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Capacity Production Overview 6.2 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Production Market Share Analysis 6.3 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Demand Overview 6.4 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Supply Demand and Shortage 6.5 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Import Export Consumption 6.6 2009-2014 Syndiotacticpolystyrene(SPS) Cost Price Production Value Gross Margin See also China Syndiotactic Polystyrene Industry Trend Research, 2013 Syndiotactic Polystyrene Market Anaysis, China Syndiotactic Polystyrene Market Size and Share, China SPS Market Trends, 2013 SPS Market China
Views: 100 QY Research Reports
Glass transition Meaning
 
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Video shows what glass transition means. The transition which occurs when a liquid is cooled to an amorphous or glassy solid; occurs if the cooling rate is so fast that normal crystallization is prevented.. Glass transition Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say glass transition. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 468 SDictionary
Lec 29 | MIT 3.091SC Introduction to Solid State Chemistry, Fall 2010
 
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Lecture 29: Polymers: Synthesis, Properties & Applications Instructor: Donald Sadoway View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/3-091SCF10 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 20525 MIT OpenCourseWare
Polystyrene
 
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Polystyrene (PS) /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/ is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical. Polystyrene can be rigid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. It is a very inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively low melting point. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several billion kilograms per year. Polystyrene can be naturally transparent, but can be colored with colorants. Uses include protective packaging (such as packing peanuts and CD and DVD cases), containers (such as "clamshells"), lids, bottles, trays, tumblers, and disposable cutlery. Polystyrene is used to make napalm-B, where it makes up about 46% of the formulation. As a thermoplastic polymer, polystyrene is in a solid (glassy) state at room temperature but flows if heated above about 100 °C, its glass transition temperature. It becomes rigid again when cooled. This temperature behavior is exploited for extrusion, and also for molding and vacuum forming, since it can be cast into molds with fine detail. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 953 Audiopedia
Polystyrene
 
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Polystyrene /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/ is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical. Polystyrene can be rigid or foamed. General purpose polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. It is a very inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively low melting point. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several billion kilograms per year. Polystyrene can be naturally transparent, but can be colored with colorants. Uses include protective packaging , containers , lids, bottles, trays, tumblers, and disposable cutlery. Polystyrene is used to make napalm-B, where it makes up about 46% of the formulation. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 1824 encyclopediacc
Polymer
 
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A polymer (/ˈpɒlɨmər/) (poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "parts"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 790 Audiopedia
Polymer chemistry | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer_chemistry 00:00:54 1 Polymers and their properties 00:03:05 2 Classification 00:04:33 2.1 Composites 00:04:48 3 History 00:08:14 4 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Polymer chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that focuses on the chemical synthesis, structure, chemical and physical properties of polymers and macromolecules. The principles and methods used for polymer chemistry are common to chemistry sub-disciplines organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and physical chemistry. Many materials have polymeric structures, from fully inorganic metals and ceramics to DNA and other biological molecules, however, polymer chemistry is typically referred to in the context of synthetic, organic compositions. Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in commercial materials and products in everyday use, commonly referred to as plastics, rubbers, and composites. Polymer chemistry can also be included in the broader fields of polymer science or even nanotechnology, both of which can be described as encompassing polymer physics and polymer engineering.
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History of polymer chemistry | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer_chemistry 00:00:57 1 Polymers and their properties 00:03:12 2 Classification 00:04:43 2.1 Composites 00:04:59 3 History 00:08:33 4 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.959271508398178 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Polymer chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that focuses on the chemical synthesis, structure, chemical and physical properties of polymers and macromolecules. The principles and methods used for polymer chemistry are common to chemistry sub-disciplines organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and physical chemistry. Many materials have polymeric structures, from fully inorganic metals and ceramics to DNA and other biological molecules, however, polymer chemistry is typically referred to in the context of synthetic, organic compositions. Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in commercial materials and products in everyday use, commonly referred to as plastics, rubbers, and composites. Polymer chemistry can also be included in the broader fields of polymer science or even nanotechnology, both of which can be described as encompassing polymer physics and polymer engineering.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Organic chemistry
 
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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form , but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical study. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 161 encyclopediacc
Organic chemistry
 
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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy (e.g., NMR), mass spectrometry, and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes probing their scope through use in preparation of target compounds (e.g., natural products, drugs, polymers, etc.) by chemical synthesis, as well as the focused study of the reactivities of individual organic molecules, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study. The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as myriad compositions based always on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 193 Audiopedia